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Heitor Villa-lobos – 12 Études for Guitar with sheet music, con partitura

Heitor Villa-lobos – 12 Études for Guitar with sheet music, con partitura

villa-lobos sheet music pdf

Villa-Lobos

Es el compositor brasileño más admirado, autor de una docena de sinfonías. Estudió la música popular de los indios de su tierra, incorporándola en su obra. Su música, de un carácter muy personal, se caracteriza por la potencia rítmica, que une a las formas del postromanticismo europeo, produciendo una música de una fascinante belleza tímbrica.

Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) nació en Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) el 5 de marzo de 1887. Su padre Raúl trabajaba como bibliotecario en la Biblioteca Nacional de Rio de Janeiro, siendo un gran amante de la música, tocando el violonchelo y el clarinete. Su primer maestro fue su propio padre que le enseñó a tocar el violonchelo, que se convirtió en su instrumento favorito. Además del repertorio clásico, con su primer contacto con la música de Bach, admiraba la música popular, lo que le daría a su obra un especial color, por este motivo aprendió también a tocar la guitarra. Con su padre asistía a reuniones de cantadores y seresteiros. Al no poderlos acompañar decidió practicar este tipo de música en su violonchelo.

Su madre había deseado que su hijo estudiara medicina por lo cual no le dejaba tocar el piano. Pero su vocación era superior y por ello aprendió a tocar la guitarra desarrollando una técnica especial.

Después de la muerte de su padre en 1899, su familia atraviesa grandes dificultades económicas. Por ello se gana la vida como músico de café interpretando música popular tocando el violoncello y la guitarra. La interpretación de los populares chorôs le produce una fascinación que le acompañará toda su vida. Mientras, estudia humanidades clásicas en el Monasterio de los Benedictinos de Rio. Luego toca el violoncello en el Teatro Recreio, una especie de music-hall, en el cine Odeon y en varios hoteles.

En esta época aprende pasos de la capoeira con sus nuevos amigos, entre los que se encuentra Zé do Cavaquinho, que años mas tarde sería un famoso chorão o sea intérprete de chorôs, género del que hablaremos en posteriores párrafos.

Otro gran amigo es el gran pianista polaco Arthur Rubinstein que conoció casualmente en los carnavales cariocas. Rubinstein que estaba vestido de mujer encontró a Villa-Lobos con una cobra de verdad enrollada a su cuello. Los dos fueron a divertirse en el carnaval, con el resultado de acabar en el cuartelillo de la policía.

Interesado en la música folclórica realiza su primer viaje en 1905 a los estados nororientales de Brasil. Estos viajes continuaron durante los ocho años siguientes, recorriendo el norte, los bordes del Amazonas y los estados del centro y sur del Brasil. Buscaba los orígenes de su cultura, sintiéndose plenamente identificado a su tierra. Recoge gran cantidad de melodías que después integrará a sus obras.

Entre los años 1908 y 1912 compone la “Suite popular brasileña” para guitarra, una obra que inmortaliza las creaciones de los improvisadores de los chorôs con sus transformaciones de las clásicas formas como la mazurca, el vals o la gavota.

En 1913 regresa a Rio conociendo a la pianista Lucilia Guimarães, casándose en el mismo año. Lucilia será la intérprete al piano de muchas obras compuestas por su marido entre 1910 y 1920. Estos años fueron muy creativos para Villa-Lobos, alcanzando en 1916 más de cien obras compuestas.

La música brasileña posee una gran riqueza al integrarse tres culturas muy diferentes. La cultura portuguesa blanca le aporta el sistema tonal, la cultura negra su sentido rítmico y el uso de la síncopa, finalmente se pueden unir las aportaciones de su propia cultura indígena.

En los años 1870 la música popular carioca estaba dominada por las danzas europeas, como la polka, la mazurca o el schotisch. También bajo la influencia argentina apareció una variante llamada tango brasileño. Estas danzas habían desplazadas a las folclóricas maxixe, modinhas o al landú. Esta época es la que vio el nacimiento de los chorôs.

La música popular estaba dividida entre la vocal y la instrumental. En la vocal dominaban las serenatas cantadas por los seresteiros. El choro era un conjunto instrumental que tocaba música de temas populares generalmente improvisados. El origen de la palabra choro es incierto pues existen muchas diversas explicaciones. De chorar o sea llorar, de chorus, coro, de choromeleiros, instrumentistas de la charamela, un precedente del clarinete o de xolo, una fiesta rural de los negros.

El conjunto instrumental original estaba formado por una guitarra, un cavaquinho, instrumente de la familia de la mandolina y una flauta. Mas tarde entraron los instrumentos de metal a formar parte de los chorôs. La Banda de Bomberos de Rio dirigida por Irineo de Almeida fue una gran populizadora del choro.

La música que interpretaban los chorôs se denominaba del mismo modo. En un principio los temas procedían de las polkas, valses y tangos brasileños. Estas danzas eran transformadas con los ritmos populares brasileños. El género nació en el pueblo, en reuniones donde se comía y bebía. Ernesto Nazareth (1863-1934) fue un gran compositor de chorôs, pero debido a su carácter popular muchas veces no los denominaba como tales.

La época de mayor esplendor del choro fueron los años 1920. Entonces empezó la influencia del jazz al que dieron un tratamiento especial o sea que se formó el jazz brasileño, pero este tema surgirá en los años venideros.

El primer concierto oficial dedicado exclusivamente a su música tuvo lugar el 13 de noviembre de 1915, el cual fue recibido por la crítica como un iconoclasta por su estilo de composición avanzado para lo que acostumbraban en esta época.

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Bach, J.S. – Orchestersuiten Suite Nr. 1 C-Dur BWV 1066 “Passepied” (Klaviersolo Noten)

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    Bach, J.S. – Orchestersuiten Suite Nr. 1 C-Dur BWV 1066 “Passepied” (Klaviersolo) mit Noten

    bach sheet music

    Die Ouvertüre, die J.S. Bachs Erste Orchestersuite wurde auf einem bewährten, bereits bestehenden Modell aufgebaut. Man könnte es sogar eine Formel nennen.

    Es war die stilvolle „Französische Ouvertüre“ aus den 1650er Jahren, die die Ballette von Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) eröffnete, einem Komponisten, der den Großteil seines Lebens am Hof ​​Ludwigs XIV. verbrachte. Die französische Ouvertüre beginnt mit einem majestätischen langsamen Abschnitt, der aus stattlichen punktierten Rhythmen besteht, die für einen König geeignet sind.

    Dies führt zu einem schnelleren Abschnitt voller imitierender, frugaler Kontrapunkte. All das können Sie in der Ouvertüre zu Lullys Comédie-ballet von 1670, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, hören. Vielleicht träumte Prinz Leopold, Bachs Dienstherr in Köthen, davon, ein Stück der künstlerischen Opulenz zu importieren, die ein fester Bestandteil der Regierungszeit des Sonnenkönigs (die von 1643 bis 1715 dauerte) gewesen war.

    In der Ersten Orchestersuite, die irgendwann vor 1725 komponiert wurde, folgte Bach der Formel treu. Die folgenden Sätze (Courante, Gavotte I und II, Forlane, Menuett I und II, Bourreé I und II, Passepied I und II) verwenden barocke Tanzformen, die sowohl in Frankreich als auch in Italien beliebt waren. Doch innerhalb der Grenzen dieser populären Formen öffnet Bach die Tür zu reiner Magie.

    Hören Sie sich ab den Eröffnungstakten die reichhaltige Konversation zwischen den Stimmen an, die alle Grenzen zwischen „Melodie“ und „Harmonie“ verwischt. Im schnelleren Fugenabschnitt splittern Gruppen von Soloinstrumenten ab und machen dies zu einem virtuellen Concerto Grosso.

    Diese Stimmen werden mit einem ebenso aufregenden Sinn für Dramatik in den Tänzen lebendig. Beachten Sie in Gavotte II die fanfarenartige Linie der Violine, die sich hinterhältig um die Oboen und das Continuo windet.

    Darauf folgt der Forlane, der seine Wurzeln als ausgelassener italienischer Straßentanz hat, oft mit Mandolinen und Kastagnetten. In Bachs Forlane erzeugen wirbelnde Linien in den inneren Streicherstimmen ein Gefühl überbordender Vorwärtsbewegung. Zahlreiche zusätzliche Abenteuer entfalten sich in den Sätzen kontrastierender Tänze der Suite.

    bach sheet music download

    Auch nach dem Tod Ludwigs des Vierzehnten träumte jeder Prinz hin und wieder von einem Hof ​​wie dem des Sonnenkönigs. Und was passte besser zu einem solchen Hof als eine französische Ouvertüre?

    Sehr wenig Instrumentalmusik von Bach ist erhalten geblieben. Und wir wissen praktisch nichts darüber, wann, warum oder für wen die erhaltene Musik geschrieben wurde. Dasselbe gilt für diese Suite, die in Stil und Atmosphäre der von Lully am Hof ​​Ludwigs des Vierzehnten geschriebenen Tanzmusik entspricht: eine Reihe stilisierter Tänze.

    Heutzutage nennen wir das eine Suite, aber damals war es als Ouvertüre oder Eröffnungsstück bekannt. Als Hommage an den König begann eine solche Abfolge von Tänzen mit einer stattlichen Eröffnung, mit einem bemerkenswerten Staccato-Rhythmus – zu dem der König seinen Auftritt machen konnte – gefolgt von einem etwas schnelleren, fugalen Mittelteil. Die Instrumentierung von Bachs Orchestersuite Nr. 1 ist ebenfalls französisch, wobei Oboen und ein Fagott die Streicherstimmen verdoppeln.

    Diese Suite könnte durchaus in Bachs Zeit als Kapellmeister in Köthen entstanden sein, wo Prinz Leopold gelegentlich von einem Hof ​​im Stile des Sonnenkönigs geträumt haben muss. Aber auch für die Konzerte des Collegium Musicum in Leipzig war diese Tanzmusik gut geeignet.

    Bei der Auswahl der Tänze ließ sich Bach für diese Suite nicht nur von Frankreich, sondern auch von Italien inspirieren. Die Reihenfolge ist ziemlich normal und manchmal ein bisschen altmodisch, mit Tänzen, die paarweise wiederholt werden. Typisch französisch sind Gavotte, Menuett und Passepied.

    Die Courante war sowohl in Frankreich als auch in Italien beliebt, und die Forlane stammt ursprünglich aus Italien, wurde aber auch am französischen Hof in Mode. Am Ende hat Bach allem seinen eigenen Stempel aufgedrückt. Die Oboen und das Fagott verdoppeln die Streicher, gehen aber manchmal auch eigene Wege und schaffen so eine Art Concerto Grosso in Verkleidung.

    Französischer Bach

    Auch nach dem Tod Ludwigs des Vierzehnten träumte jeder Prinz hin und wieder von einem Hof ​​wie dem des Sonnenkönigs. Und was passte besser zu einem solchen Hof als eine französische Ouvertüre?

    Sehr wenig Instrumentalmusik von Bach ist erhalten geblieben. Und wir wissen praktisch nichts darüber, wann, warum oder für wen die erhaltene Musik geschrieben wurde. Dasselbe gilt für diese Suite, die in Stil und Atmosphäre der von Lully am Hof ​​Ludwigs des Vierzehnten geschriebenen Tanzmusik entspricht: eine Reihe stilisierter Tänze. Heutzutage nennen wir das eine Suite, aber damals war es als Ouvertüre oder Eröffnungsstück bekannt.

    Als Hommage an den König begann eine solche Abfolge von Tänzen mit einer stattlichen Eröffnung mit einem bemerkenswerten Staccato-Rhythmus – zu dem der König seinen Auftritt machen konnte – gefolgt von einem etwas schnelleren, fugalen Mittelteil. Die Instrumentierung von Bachs Orchestersuite Nr. 1 ist ebenfalls französisch, wobei Oboen und ein Fagott die Streicherstimmen verdoppeln.

    Diese Suite könnte durchaus in Bachs Zeit als Kapellmeister in Köthen entstanden sein, wo Prinz Leopold gelegentlich von einem Hof ​​im Stile des Sonnenkönigs geträumt haben muss. Aber auch für die Konzerte des Collegium Musicum in Leipzig war diese Tanzmusik gut geeignet.
    Bei der Auswahl der Tänze ließ sich Bach für diese Suite nicht nur von Frankreich, sondern auch von Italien inspirieren. Die Reihenfolge ist ziemlich normal und manchmal ein bisschen altmodisch, mit Tänzen, die paarweise wiederholt werden.

    Typisch französisch sind Gavotte, Menuett und Passepied. Die Courante war sowohl in Frankreich als auch in Italien beliebt, und die Forlane stammt ursprünglich aus Italien, wurde aber auch am französischen Hof in Mode. Am Ende hat Bach allem seinen eigenen Stempel aufgedrückt. Die Oboen und das Fagott verdoppeln die Streicher, gehen aber manchmal auch eigene Wege und schaffen so eine Art Concerto Grosso in Verkleidung.

    Orchestersuiten, BWV 1066-1069
    Obwohl es verlockend ist, von den Vier Orchestersuiten , könnte es gut sein, dass Bach noch eine oder zwei oder sogar zehn davon geschrieben hat. Denn anders als die „Brandenburgischen“ Konzerte sind diese Vier Orchestersuiten nicht miteinander verwandt. Spezialisten wie Joshua Rifkin betrachten sie sogar als Arrangements von Stücken anderer Genres.

    Bach hat einfach vorzeigbare Festmusik für die wohlhabenden Höfe von Weimar und Köthen geschrieben; Gelegenheitsmusik, die später im Repertoire des Collegium Musicum eine neue Heimat fand.

    Bachs Suiten (Reihe stilisierter Tänze) strahlen den Stil und die Atmosphäre der Tanzmusik aus, die Lully am Hofe Ludwigs des Vierzehnten geschrieben hat. Heutzutage nennen wir das eine Suite, aber damals war es als Ouvertüre oder Eröffnungsstück bekannt.

    Als Hommage an den König begann eine solche Abfolge von Tänzen mit einer stattlichen Eröffnung mit einem bemerkenswerten Staccato-Rhythmus – zu dem der König seinen Auftritt machen konnte – gefolgt von einem etwas schnelleren, fugalen Mittelteil.

    Eine interessante Hypothese über den relativen Mangel an Suiten bei Bach ist, dass er das Genre nicht ausreichend beherrschen konnte. Das Modell kam direkt aus dem Paris von Lully und duldete keine Konkurrenz. Besonders die pompöse Ouvertüre – mit langsam-schnell-langsam, fugalem Mittelteil und „französischen“ Rhythmen – ist typisch … und vielleicht zu restriktiv für unseren jungen deutschen Kapellmeister.

    Der abschließende Passepied verwendet im kontrastierenden Mittelsatz das Originalthema in den hohen Streichern und fügt nach Art einer Variation eine fortlaufende Achtelkette der beiden unisono geführten Oboen hinzu.

    Bach Suite Nr. 1 C-Dur BWV 1066: Analyse

    Von den vier Werken, die heute „Orchestersuite“ (oder „Ouvertüre“ zu Bach) genannt werden, gilt die C-Dur-Orchestersuite als die früheste der vier erhaltenen, es ist für zwei Oboen, Fagott, Streicher und Continuo gesetzt. Dies ist „wohl die konservativste der vier“ (Robin Stowell, „Orchestral Suites“ in Oxford Composer Companions: JS Bach).

    Und vielleicht ist sie deshalb weniger bekannt als die beiden „Interior“-Suiten, die zweite Suite in h-Moll (mit der berühmten Badinerie) und die dritte Suite in D-Dur (mit der berühmten „Air for the G-String “).

    Stilistisch ist die Erste Suite in C-Dur französischen Suiten nachempfunden und verwendet daher französisch stilisierte Tanzsätze (Französische Ouvertüre, Courante, Gavotte I & II, Forlane, Menuett I & II, Bourreé I & II, Passepied I & II). Gleichzeitig ähnelt es einem Concerto grosso, wobei die Oboenpaare oft als Concertino dienen. Wir sehen den Einfluss des Concerto grosso schon im ersten Satz, einer französischen Ouvertüre.

    Normalerweise denken wir nicht an Sologruppen in einem französischen Ouvertürensatz. Aber hier, im schnelleren Fugenabschnitt, gibt es Teile, die deutlich mit „Trio“ gekennzeichnet sind – für die Oboen mit ihrer Continuo-Unterstützung (nur Fagott) – und andere, die mit „Tutti“ für das gesamte Ensemble gekennzeichnet sind:

    Beachten Sie aus der Liste der Sätze (oben) die Anzahl der paarigen Sätze – zwei Gavottes, zwei Menuette, zwei Bourreés, zwei Passpieds. Während die anderen drei Suiten einige gepaarte Bewegungen haben, hat keine so viele. Diese gepaarten Sätze werden normalerweise als ABA-Form gespielt: Gavotte I wie geschrieben, Gavotte II wie geschrieben, Gavotte I wieder ohne Wiederholungen.

    Die gepaarten Gavotten bieten schöne klangliche und strukturelle Kontraste zueinander, wobei die erste durchgehend das gesamte Ensemble verwendet; dies ist im Wesentlichen eine vierstimmige Struktur, mit Oboen und ersten Geigen, die unisono spielen, und die zweiten Geigen, Bratschen und Continuo (einschließlich Fagott), die jeweils die anderen drei Stimmen bilden.

    In der zweiten Gavotte hingegen treten die Oboen fast wie ein weiteres Conertino auf, wobei die Streicher ein Unisono-Fanfarenmotiv sowohl als „Füller“ als auch als Kontrapunkt spielen. Robin Stowell identifiziert dies als dieselbe Fanfarenidee, die Bach im Eröffnungschor der Kantate 70 verwendet (Stowell, „Orchestral Suites“, in Oxford Composer Companions: JS Bach ).

    Am bemerkenswertesten unter den Sätzen ist vielleicht die Verwendung des Forlane, des einzigen italienischen Tanzes unter den Sätzen und einer seltenen Tanzform für Bach. Insbesondere der Forlane (auch „Forlana“ genannt) war im Venedig des 18. Jahrhunderts beliebt und war normalerweise ein Straßentanz mit Mandolinen, Kastagnetten und Trommeln. Es war daher sehr rhythmisch.

    Ein Forlane war normalerweise in zusammengesetzten Metren und oft in 6/8. Bachs Beispiel steht im 6/4-Takt. Ein Forlane wird wegen des 6/4- oder 6/8-Takts oft als „schwebend“ beschrieben, aber mit dem schnellen Tempo und den zahlreichen punktierten Rhythmen würde ich Bachs Forlane nicht als trällernd beschreiben. Die Basslinie ist stark fragmentiert und repetitiv, fast wie ein Ostinato – sie ist sicherlich ostinatoartig in Bezug auf den Rhythmus und behält das gleiche Muster im ersten Abschnitt bis zur Kadenz bei.

    In ähnlicher Weise zeigen auch die Menuette (Menuette) und Bourreés durch wechselnde Besetzung klangliche und strukturelle Kontraste in ihren Paarungen. Das erste Menuett verwendet das gesamte Orchester, während das zweite nur für Streicher bestimmt ist. Die erste Bourreé ist für ein volles Orchester – wie die erste Gavotte – mit Oboen und ersten Violinen unisono in einer ansonsten vierstimmigen Textur.

    Aber die zweite Bourreé verwendet nur das „Concertino“ – die beiden Oboen mit Fagott als Continuo. Es ist eine einfachere Textur als anderswo in der Suite, nicht nur, weil es nur drei Stimmen gibt, sondern auch, weil die beiden Oboen häufig im rhythmischen Unisono auftreten. Dies ist auch der einzige Satz in der ersten Orchestersuite, der in Moll steht.

    (Lassen Sie sich nicht von der partiellen Tonartvorzeichnung in dem Beispiel täuschen, die nur zwei Bes zeigt; dies ist eindeutig in c-Moll, wie durch die Verwendung von H-Naturtönen belegt wird.)

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    Claude Debussy interpreta Debussy – Clair de Lune (1913)

    Claude Debussy interpreta Debussy – Clair de Lune (1913)

    Claude-Achille Debussy – Clair de Lune (Mondglanz, Mondschein, Moonlight), Suite Bergamasque, Debussy, pianoforte.

    La Suite bergamasque fu composta per la prima volta nel 1890-1905. “Claude Debussy suona le sue opere migliori” Claude Debussy, Piano Roll, 1913.

    claude debussy sheet music score download partitura partition spartiti

    Dal 1903 al 1913, Claude Debussy registrò molti dei suoi brani su rulli di pianoforte. Debussy si rallegrò della qualità della riproduzione, dicendo in una lettera a Edwin Welte: “È impossibile raggiungere una perfezione di riproduzione maggiore di quella dell’apparato Welte. Sono felice di assicurarvi in ​​queste righe il mio stupore e la mia ammirazione per quanto ho sentito. Sono, egregio signore, vostra fedelmente, Claude Debussy.

    Con più di un secolo di vita, queste registrazioni ci permettono di ascoltare il grande compositore suonare le proprie opere. Debussy fece le sue ultime registrazioni quando aveva 52 anni e soffriva di cancro, nel 1913. Morì meno di cinque anni dopo, il 25 marzo 1918.

    I rulli per la riproduzione del pianoforte erano generalmente realizzati dalle esibizioni registrate di musicisti famosi. In genere, un pianista si siede a un pianoforte di registrazione appositamente progettato e l’altezza e la durata di tutte le note suonate sarebbero contrassegnate o perforate su un rullo vuoto, insieme alla durata del pedale di sostegno e di sordina.

    La riproduzione di pianoforti può anche ricreare la dinamica dell’esecuzione di un pianista per mezzo di perforazioni di controllo appositamente codificate posizionate verso i bordi di un rullino musicale, ma questa codifica non è mai stata registrata automaticamente.

    Diverse compagnie avevano modi diversi di annotare le dinamiche, alcune tecnicamente avanzate (sebbene non necessariamente più efficaci), altre segrete e altre ancora dipendenti interamente dalle note scritte a mano di un produttore discografico, ma in tutti i casi questi geroglifici dinamici dovevano essere abilmente convertiti in speciali perforati codici necessari ai diversi tipi di strumento.

    Il modo di suonare di molti pianisti e compositori è preservato durante la riproduzione del piano roll. Gustav Mahler, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Teresa Carreño, Claude Debussy, Manuel de Falla, Scott Joplin, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Alexander Scriabin, Jelly Roll Morton e George Gershwin sono tra i compositori e pianisti che hanno suonato registrato in questo modo.

    Il famoso Clair de lune di Claude Debussy è il terzo brano della Suite bergamasque per pianoforte, un’opera il cui titolo è stato scelto tanto per l’amore del suo compositore per i suoni delle parole quanto per le sue implicazioni rinascimentali (sebbene l’opera possa essere giustamente descritta come qualcosa di un omaggio ai clavicembalisti francesi di un tempo).

    Il re bemolle maggiore di Clair de lune è scelto perfettamente, la melodia scintillante in terze parallele (con sordina, richieste di Debussy) sapientemente bilanciata dal tempo rubato meravigliosamente dissonante che la segue. Durante la sezione centrale un poco mosso di Clair de lune, la musica si gonfia ben oltre il pianissimo dell’apertura, e nel suo culmine si potrebbe dire che il giovane compositore ha creato più della luce del sole che della luce della luna; gli incessanti arpeggi possono ben essere esagerati, ma si possono comunque apprezzarli.

    Piccoli frammenti di questi arpeggi si fanno strada nella ripresa della musica di apertura, e ai toni rotolanti della sezione centrale vengono date alcune misure per perorare ancora una volta la loro causa prima che la cadenza cromatica finale, un momento di assoluta tranquillità, sia resa .

    Clair de Lune è una poesia francese scritta da Paul Verlaine nell’anno 1869. È l’ispirazione per il terzo e più famoso movimento dell’omonima Suite bergamasque di Debussy del 1890. ‘Clair de lune’ (‘Moonlight’) è dalla prima raccolta di Verlaine Fêtes galantes (Gallant Parties, 1869).

    Clair de Lune di Paul Verlaine

    Clair de lune ” (inglese “Moonlight”) è una poesia scritta dal poeta francese Paul Verlaine nel 1869. È l’ispirazione per il terzo e più famoso movimento della Claude Debussy del 1890 Suite bergamasque . Debussy ha anche eseguito due impostazioni della poesia per accompagnamento vocale e pianoforte. La poesia è stata musicata anche da Gabriel Fauré , Louis Vierne e Josef Szulc .

    La tua anima è un paesaggio scelto
    Vanno affascinanti maschere e bergamasche
    Suonare il liuto e ballare e quasi
    Tristi sotto i loro travestimenti stravaganti.

    Mentre si canta in modalità minore
    Vincere l’amore e la vita opportuna
    Non sembrano credere nella loro felicità
    E il loro canto si mescola al chiaro di luna,

    Nel calmo chiaro di luna triste e bella,
    Chi fa sognare gli uccelli sugli alberi
    E singhiozzare di estasi i getti d’acqua,
    I grandi getti d’acqua si snelliscono tra i marmi.

    La tua anima è un paesaggio scelto
    Dove passeggiano incantevoli mascherate e ballerine,
    Suonare il liuto e ballare, e quasi
    Triste sotto i loro fantastici travestimenti.

    Mentre canta in tonalità minore
    Dell’amore vittorioso e della vita piacevole
    Sembrano non credere nella propria felicità
    E il loro canto si fonde con la luce della luna,

    Con la luce triste e bella della luna,
    Che fa sognare gli uccelli sugli alberi,
    E fa singhiozzare di estasi le fontane,
    L’acqua sottile scorre tra le statue marmoree.

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    Domenico Cimarosa

    Domenico Cimarosa (1749-1801) Keyboard Sonatas by Evgeny Sifertis-piano

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    cimarosa sheet music pdf

    Track List:

    00:00:00 01 Sonata in F major, C. 84 00:01:42 02 Sonata in F major, C. 71 00:06:20 03 Sonata in A minor, C. 55 00:08:26 04 Sonata in A major, C. 3 00:10:14 05. Sonata in A minor, C.58 00:11:36 06. Sonata in D minor, C.79 00:14:49 07. Sonata in B flat major, C.1 00:16:29 08. Sonata in B flat major, C.78 00:20:20 09. Sonata in G minor, C.61 00:23:58 10. Sonata in G major, C.15 00:24:41 11. Sonata in D major, C.30 00:26:20 12. Sonata in D minor, C.17 00:27:50 13. Sonata in C minor, C.68

    00:28:41 14. Sonata in E flat major, C.44 00:30:11 15. Sonata in C minor, C.66 00:31:26 16. Sonata in E flat major, C.67 00:33:11 17. Sonata in B flat major, C.69 00:35:06 18. Sonata in G minor, C.52 00:37:26 19. Sonata in G major, C.32 00:38:18 20. Sonata in G major, C.82 00:40:07 21. Sonata in D major, C.76 00:42:02 22. Sonata in D minor, C.9 00:44:22 23. Sonata in B flat major, C.80 00:46:47 24. Sonata in C minor, C.49

    00:49:32 25. Sonata in E flat major, C.37 00:51:06 26. Sonata in A minor, C.36 00:51:57 27. Sonata in A major, C.11 00:53:14 28. Sonata in A minor, C.2 00:54:36 29. Sonata in B flat major, C.27 00:56:14 30. Sonata in E flat major, C.74 00:59:10 31. Sonata in D major, C.13 00:59:51 32. Sonata in A major, C.87

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    Cimarosa, Domenico (1749 – 1801)

     Domenico Cimarosa, the son of an unemployed stone mason, was born on 17 December 1749 in the little town of Aversa, a village about 20-minutes by train from Naples today. His father, Gennaro Cimarosa, moved the family to Naples a few days after Domenico’s birth, having obtained a position as a stone mason employed in the construction of the palace at Capodimonte in Naples. Unfortunately Gennaro fell to his death while working on the palace, leaving his widow, Anna de Francesca, both to rear and financially support young Domenico. Living near the Church of San Severo, Anna arranged to serve the monastery as laundress while Domenico was taken into their school.

    A precociously intelligent boy, he soon attracted the attention of the monastery organist, Father Polcano, who gave him music lessons. At age 11, on the recommendation of Father Polcano, Domenico was admitted to the Conservatorio di S Maria di Loreto, one of five such schools established by the church for orphans and abandoned children. Although not a ‘conservatory’ in today’s sense of the word, music was an important element in the daily schooling since the figlioli (as the boys were called) provided music not only for the Church of San Loreto, but for private chapels and public occasions.

    At the Loreto Cimarosa studied counterpoint, harmony and composition in addition to becoming a skilled violinist, a gifted singer, and an expert keyboard player. After 11 or 12 years at the conservatory, during which time he composed a number of sacred works, Cimarosa completed his first opera, an opera buffa in two-acts, Le stravaganze del conte (The Eccentricities of the Count) which was given its prima at Teatro dei Fiorentini in Naples during the Carnival season of 1771-72 when the composer was 22.

    Because it was the custom of the time to offer 3 acts of musico-dramatic entertainment for an evening ‘at the opera’, Cimarosa filled out the evening with a one-act farsetta per musica, Le magie di Merlina e Zoroastro (The Magic of Merlina and Zoroastro) which served, as the libretto-program stated, for the “3rd act.”

    Although these two operas – Le stravaganze del conte (in 2 acts) and Le magie di Merlina e Zoroastro (in 1 act)- shared the same composer (Cimarosa), the same librettist (Pasquale Mililotti), and many of the same singers, the two works are entirely independent of each other both in reference to story and melodic development. What must be noted is the fact that at this time no instrumental prelude, interlude, or sinfonia preceded the third act of a typical three-act work; therefore, there is no overture or sinfonia to Le magie di Merlina e Zoroastro.

    Although challenged by the popularity of Piccinni and Paisiello who were already well-established composers, Cimarosa received commissions from Teatro Nuovo in Naples for both the seasons of 1773 (La finta parigina-The Fake Parisian Girl) and 1776 (I sdegni per amore-Dreams of Love, and I matrimonio in ballo-The Wedding in Dance). It may be more than coincidental that it was in 1776 – the year Piccinni left for Paris and Paisiello for St. Petersburg – that Cimarosa and his operas became increasingly popular in Naples. He composed some 24 operas on commission during the next decade for Neapolitan theaters.

    In 1778 the 29-year-old Cimarosa received his first commission from Teatro Valle in Rome (another seven commissions from that theater arrived in the next two decades in addition to two commissions from the Roman theaters Teatro Argentina and Teatro delle Dame). According to papal edict only men could perform on stage in Rome; Cimarosa’s female roles were all sung by castrati.

    The casts for each of these 8 operas for Teatro Valle were made up, as required by the theater, of five characters, and each opera was styled ‘intermezzo’ although they are in no way related to the comic interludes called intermezzi which were sung between the acts or scenes of an opera seria during the earlier 18th century.

    L’italiana in Londra (The Italian Girl in London), Cimarosa’s first big hit, was premiered in Rome at Teatro Valle during the Carnival season of 1778-79. Its great success led, in turn, to commissions from most of the important theaters of Italy and its neighbors in the next few years: La Scala of Milan, Eretenio of Verona, Pergola of Florence, Regio of Turin, Hermitage of St. Petersburg, Burgtheater of Vienna, Monizione of Messina, San Carlo of Lisbon, La Fenice of Venice, and Carignano of Turin.

    Cimarosa was appointed supernumerary organist (without pay) of the Royal Chapel in Naples in November of 1779 at age of 30. He was promoted in March 1785 to the position of second organist with a monthly salary of eight ducats (about U.S. $300 in today’s currency), a sum paid regularly even when Cimarosa was absent from Naples.

    It was around the very early 1780s – the exact date is unknown – that Cimarosa was appointed a maestro at a Venetian conservatory for girls, the Ospedaletto. He composed one of his finest oratorios, Absalom (Absalon) for the Ospedaletto in 1782. Again, it seems Cimarosa received his salary regularly even when he was absent from Venice.

    Catherine the Great of Russia invited Cimarosa to replace Sarti as her maestro di cappella in 1787. He left Naples by ship, stopping at the Tuscan port of Livorno and visiting Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany in Florence, possibly being invited at the time to play on the new fortepiano Cristofori had invented and presented to Leopold. It is almost certain that it was during this visit to the Medici court in Florence that Cimarosa composed the bulk of his keyboard sonatas.

    Passing on his way to Russia through Parma, Vienna, Krakow, and Warsaw – and being lavishly honored and fêted at each stop – Cimarosa arrived at the court in St. Petersburg at the beginning of December. Unfortunately his period in Russia (1787-91) coincided with a period of retrenchment in the court music ensemble (the Italian opera company so dwindled that by 1790 only three singers were left).

    Since no date nor location for the prima of Cimarosa’s marvelous one-act, one-man comedy in music (technically a cantata but actually a one-man opera), Il maestro di cappella, is known, it is likely that it was written during this period since there were so not enough singers left to perform almost any other opera. It is no secret that Catherine herself had little admiration or use for Cimarosa’s music, so it is not surprising that the composer left Russia when his contract expired in 1791.

    Passing on his way home to Naples through Vienna, Cimarosa learned that his friend and patron Leopold, the former Grand Duke of Tuscany, was now Emperor Leopold II of Austria. As emperor, Ferdinand appointed Cimarosa Kapellmeister to the Austrian court.

    The composer’s commission from Leopold for a comic opera resulted in Il matrimonio segreto (1792), one of the world’s most famous and popular comic operas. Unfortunately Leopold II died less than a month after he had commanded Cimarosa to repeat the entire opera as an encore following its second performance.

    Though Cimarosa stayed on in Vienna to see his Amor rende sagace (Love Makes One Shrewd) produced at the Burgtheater on 1 April 1792 and I traci amanti (The Thracian Lovers) at the same theater on 19 June 1792, he returned to Naples in the spring of 1793.

    In addition to commissions that arrived regularly after his return to Naples, Cimarosa was appointed first organist of the royal chapel with a monthly salary of 10 ducats (approximately $375 U.S. today).

    The Kingdom of Naples was occupied by Napoleon’s republican forces and the ‘Parthenopean Republic’ established in January of 1799. Cimarosa, in sympathy with their cause, composed a patriotic hymn to a text by Luigi Rossi which was sung on 19 May at the ceremonial burning of the royal flag. At the end of June, however, King Ferdinand’s troops re-entered the city, which left the composer in a strange political position. He tried to make amends by composing – at the suggestion of Father Tanfano, a local priest – a cantata in praise of Ferdinand which was performed on 23 September.

    Although Cimarosa composed a few other works to appease the king, they merely angered Ferdinand more. The king then had Cimarosa arrested and incarcerated. Undoubtedly Cimarosa would have been beheaded (as was Rossi, the author of the text for the patriotic hymn) were it not for the intervention of his friends and supporters: Cardinal Consalvi, Secretary of State to the papal court in Rome; Cardinal Ruffo, lieutenant and captain of the Kingdom of Naples; and Lady Hamilton.

    After being required to leave Naples ‘forever’, the composer returned to Venice in December 1800. There the 51-year old composer, already ill from over-work and the entire prison incident, received a commission from Teatro La Fenice for a new opera seria. He did not live to complete Artemisia, a tragico per musica in 3 acts; Cimarosa died on 11 January 1801.

    Because of his international fame and the popularity of his music, rumors started to travel about that Queen Marie Caroline (the true ruler of the Kingdom of Naples) had had Cimarosa poisoned. Public opinion forced the government to publish a report on 5 April 1801, that certified that Cimarosa had died from an internal ailment (a cancerous growth of the lower stomach). The funeral service was held in the Chiesa di Sant’Angelo. A magnificent and resplendent catafalque was erected and covered with a mantle of gold-embroidered velvet, surrounded by other decorations on the high altar. All the eminent citizens of Venice attended, and music was performed free of charge by the principal Venetian artists. A vast chorus of three sections encompassed the width of the church to perform music specially composed for the service by Ferdinando Bertoni, maestro della Basilica di San Marco.

    In Rome, Cardinal Consalvi, the Secretary of State as well as Cimarosa’s friend and protector, arranged magnificent memorial rites at the Chiesa di San Carlo del Catinari, at which one of Cimarosa’s Requiem Masses was sung, all the leading artists of the city offering their talents for the occasion. Cardinal Consalvi also commissioned the distinguished sculptor Antonio Canova to create a bust of the composer, which when completed, was first placed in the Rotunda of the church and later moved to the Gallery of the Campidoglio.

    Cimarosa’s incomplete opera, Artemisia, was given its first performance at Teatro La Fenice on 17 January 1801- a bare seven days after his passing. On the occasion, the late composer received a most flattering posthumous compliment when the audience requested that the curtain be lowered at the point at which he wrote his last note.

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    George Gershwin at the Piano I’ve Got Rhythm

    George Gershwin at the Piano I’ve Got Rhythm

    Download Gershwin’s sheet music from our Library.

    gershwin sheet music pdf
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    Chopin – Étude Op 10 No 3 E Major “Tristesse” – with sheet music

    Chopin – Etude Op. 10 No. 3 with sheet music “Tristesse! – M. Pollini, piano

    chopin sheet music Christmas Medley Special Kyle Landry
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    Gustav Mahler Adagietto/Piano Transcription

    Beatrice Berrut plays her own transcription of Mahler’s Adagietto from the 5th symphony. Live in Saxon (Switzerland), Espace Consonance

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    Get the Adagietto sheet music, piano solo arrangement, from our Library (arr. by O. Singer, A. Tharaud and by J. Gribben)

    Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge between the 19th century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect, which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After 1945 his compositions were rediscovered by a new generation of listeners; Mahler then became one of the most frequently performed and recorded of all composers, a position he has sustained into the 21st century.

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    In 2016, a BBC Music Magazine survey of 151 conductors ranked three of his symphonies in the top ten symphonies of all time.

    Born in Bohemia (then part of the Austrian Empire) to Jewish parents of humble origins, the German-speaking Mahler displayed his musical gifts at an early age. After graduating from the Vienna Conservatory in 1878, he held a succession of conducting posts of rising importance in the opera houses of Europe, culminating in his appointment in 1897 as director of the Vienna Court Opera (Hofoper).

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    During his ten years in Vienna, Mahler—who had converted to Catholicism to secure the post—experienced regular opposition and hostility from the anti-Semitic press. Nevertheless, his innovative productions and insistence on the highest performance standards ensured his reputation as one of the greatest of opera conductors, particularly as an interpreter of the stage works of Wagner, Mozart, and Tchaikovsky. Late in his life he was briefly director of New York’s Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic.

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    Mahler’s œuvre is relatively limited; for much of his life composing was necessarily a part-time activity while he earned his living as a conductor. Aside from early works such as a movement from a piano quartet composed when he was a student in Vienna, Mahler’s works are generally designed for large orchestral forces, symphonic choruses and operatic soloists.

    These works were frequently controversial when first performed, and several were slow to receive critical and popular approval; exceptions included his Second Symphony, Third Symphony, and the triumphant premiere of his Eighth Symphony in 1910.

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    Some of Mahler’s immediate musical successors included the composers of the Second Viennese School, notably Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Dmitri Shostakovich and Benjamin Britten are among later 20th-century composers who admired and were influenced by Mahler. The International Gustav Mahler Institute was established in 1955 to honour the composer’s life and achievements.

    The concert pianist’s life

    Beatrice Berrut, born in the Swiss Alps in the canton of Valais, spends most of her childhood with her sister conquering the hills and mountains of her home valley. Barely two years old she learns how to ski and since then her addiction to the white powdery slopes has remained unabated. The inspiration found in the marvellous landscape, the stoic Alpine giants carved ancient rock, and the fascination by nature itself accompany her to this day on her musical journeys.

    Thanks to her mother, Beatrice soon encounters the enchanting sound of the piano as there isn’t a night that the two sisters are not lulled to sleep by the “Kinderszenen” (Scenes of Childhood) by Schumann or “Lieder ohne Worte” (Songs without Words) by Mendelssohn.

    Completely captured by the beautiful and brilliant harmonies of this big black wooden instrument, Beatrice finally decides to take her first piano lesson at the age of eight. Each day, she eagerly practices with great curiosity and devotion, since she is discovering a new world full of endless imagination and sound that is ready to be explored. A few years later, Beatrice is utterly absorbed by the sound waves of the piano. Among numerous albums collected by her parents, Beatrice finds a very particular one: 

    She listens to the second Piano Concerto by Johannes Brahms for the very first time. It feels like an existential shock, the world as she knew it crumbled and a door to infinity opened. Sleepless nights ensue, where Beatrice virtually conducts Brahms concerto, gazing at the ceiling from her bed. Suddenly, everything makes sense: it is her mission to serve this music coming from another world. She will be a pianist.

    From that moment of clarity, things follow a natural order. As a teenager, in-between long hours of hard work, Beatrice wanders along the shores of Lake Geneva, imagining composers and poets of the past finding their inspiration in this natural reservoir of beauty, just like her. Liszt, who visited Switzerland many times and fell in love with the country, becomes an important part of her life. The Vallée d’Obermann that inspired him, is where Beatrice grew up, and in his music she recognises her own quest for meaning in her mountain wanderings.

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    Schubert, Trio No. 2, Op. 100, Andante con moto

    Schubert, Trio No. 2, Op. 100, Andante con moto | Ambroise Aubrun, Maëlle Vilbert, Julien Hanck

    Schubert spent the majority of his brief but prodigious life writing and performing music within the intimate and convivial company of family and friends. Almost entirely without patrons, commissions nor aristocratic associations, he flourished within a small, cultured middle-class Viennese community where the majority of his music would remain, unknown to the larger world until after his death. Schubert wrote reams of music ideal for the setting: over six-hundred songs, numerous piano works for two and four hands, and a sizable canon of chamber music. In his final decade, Schubert produced a mature series of highly original chamber music that ranks among the greatest ever created including the Trout Quintet, the last four String Quartets, two Piano Trios and a breathtaking final work, the String Quintet in C major.

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    Despite his rapidly declining health, his final year yielded the Piano Trios, the Quintet, three Piano Sonatas and a towering Symphony in C major. It would seem that Schubert’s music just got better and better right until the end. Dying at the age of only thirty-one, Schubert may have departed with still “fairer hopes”, but the music he left behind could easily occupy a much longer life in the service of appreciating it all.

    The last Piano Trio in E-flat major, Op. 100, D.929, is a gigantic masterpiece that, with Beethoven’s Archduke, could be considered among the few greatest piano trios in the traditional repertory. It is gigantic in length and breadth, wealthy in thematic ideas, constant transformations and ingenious details of construction. A typical performance runs to nearly forty-five minutes and this without taking the repeat in the first movement, and, after Schubert’s edits in the finale, removing its repeat as well as some one hundred additional measures. “Heavenly lengths”, as Schumann would write. Like much of Schubert’s “late” music, it is grand and profound in a way that goes well beyond the relatively modest context in which he wrote.

    It was among the few pieces performed in the only public concert featuring Schubert’s music held during his lifetime, the only work published outside Austria before his death. Schumann wrote, “a Trio by Schubert passed across the musical world like some angry comet in the sky”. More intense than its worthy companion, the Piano Trio in B-flat major written around the same time, it flairs with passion, pathos, perhaps even anger, but it is equally saturated with joy, grace and triumphant beauty.

    The first movement sonata in moderate tempo is full of Schubertian lyricism and energy, with as many as six separate thematic ideas in the exposition alone. Careful inspection reveals that they are related. Swept along within Schubert’s typical flow of songlike themes, it is easy to overlook the ways in which he equally excels with a set of key motives that interrelate and recur throughout the trio in a wonderful organic unity. While vast, the trio is also highly integrated. The development is concerned chiefly with the last theme working this generous sonata into surprising dramatic heights.

    The slow movement begins with a somber, poised march with a singing cello lament in a minor key. A second theme melts the chill into a tender, bright warmth of smooth motion, a contrast that generates another unexpected epic, the most memorable movement of the trio. Twice, it swells into a blinding heat of monumental passion before cooling again into the restrained, unforgiving march.

    The Scherzo delights with sparkling play and clever invention: it is a canon throughout with piano and strings imitating each other in a variety of shifting combinations interlacing two and three-part textures in a genial dance like so many Schubert wrote for his Viennese friends. The trio section is more rustic and bold with heavy accents and a recall of one of the troubled, rhythmic themes from the first movement charmed into dance through a loving contrapuntal embrace.

    The finale is combination of rondo and sonata forms with no less than three additional melodies, as though Schubert had an inexhaustible font of new music pouring out of his racing, mortal imagination. Midway through, Schubert reintroduces the march theme from the second movement, reminding us of something important we may have forgotten. Now, at least four distinct themes weave in an out of a tapestry of dazzling color and virtuosity with music that perhaps exceeds even Mozart with its lyrical bounty. For a final transformation of tremendous effect and compelling unity, Schubert returns to the march theme yet again, this time reborn in a final triumphant major key.

    A casual listen to Schubert sometimes provokes the reaction that he is a bit long-winded, maybe even a bit repetitive. A more attentive listening reveals that Schubert never says the same thing twice. With his masterful handling of an ever-changing texture, his uncanny use of color within a chamber ensemble, his expert rhythmic sense and his exotic, emotionally keen harmonic modulations, Schubert always invests his recurring thematic material with new meaning, ultimately building a large-scale narrative where nothing is redundant and everything necessary. His music demands from the listener only an equivalently generous presence of heart and mind.

    The Trio No. 2 in E-flat major for piano, violin, and violoncello, D. 929, was one of the last compositions completed by Franz Schubert, dated November 1827. It was published by Probst as opus 100 in late 1828, shortly before the composer’s death and first performed at a private party in January 1828 to celebrate the engagement of Schubert’s school-friend Josef von Spaun. The Trio was among the few of his late compositions Schubert heard performed before his death. It was given its first private performance by Carl Maria von Bocklet on the piano, Ignaz Schuppanzigh playing the violin, and Josef Linke playing cello.

    Like Schubert’s other piano trio, this is a comparatively larger work than most piano trios of the time, taking almost 50 minutes to perform. The second theme of the first movement is based loosely on the opening theme of the Minuet and Trio of Schubert’s G major sonata (D. 894). Scholar Christopher H. Gibbs asserts direct evidence of Beethoven’s influence on the Trio.

    The main theme of the second movement was used as one of the central musical themes in Stanley Kubrick‘s 1975 film Barry Lyndon. It has also been used in a number of other films, including The Hunger, Crimson Tide, The Piano Teacher, L’Homme de sa vie, Land of the Blind, Recollections of the Yellow House, The Way He Looks, Miss Julie, the HBO miniseries John Adams, The Mechanic, two episodes of American Crime Story, and as the opening piece for the ABC documentary The Killing Season.

    The piano trio contains four movements:

    I. Allegro

    The first movement is in sonata form. There is disagreement over the break-up of thematic material with one source claiming six separate units of thematic material while another source divides them into three themes each with two periods. There is to an extent extra thematic material during the recapitulation. At least one of the thematic units is based closely on the opening theme of the third movement of the earlier Piano Sonata in G major, D 894. The development section focuses mainly on the final theme of the exposition.

    II. Andante con moto

    Principal theme in the second movement

    The second movement takes an asymmetrical-double-ternary form. The principal theme is based in the Swedish folk song Se solen sjunker, which the composer had heard in the Fröhlich sisters’ house, sung by the tenor Isak Albert Berg.

    III. Scherzo: Allegro moderato

    The scherzo is an animated piece in standard double ternary form.

    IV. Allegro moderato

    The finale is in sonata-rondo form. Schubert also includes in two interludes the opening theme of the second movement in an altered version. Schubert also made some cuts in this finale, one of which includes the second-movement theme combined contrapuntally with other material from the finale.

    https://www.earsense.org/chamber-music/Franz-Schubert-Piano-Trio-No-2-in-E-flat-major-Op-100-D-929/

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    18th Variation by Rachmaninoff from Rhapsody on a theme by Paganini (piano solo)

    18th Variation by Rachmaninoff from Rhapsody on a theme by Paganini (piano solo arr.) – Katalin Zsubrits, piano. Sheet music download from our Library.

    The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43, (Russian: Рапсодия на тему Паганини, Rapsodiya na temu Paganini) is a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff for piano and orchestra, closely resembling a piano concerto, all in a single movement. Rachmaninoff wrote the work at his summer home, the Villa Senar in Switzerland, according to the score, from 3 July to 18 August 1934.

    Rachmaninoff himself, a noted interpreter of his own works, played the piano part at the piece’s premiere on 7 November 1934, at the Lyric Opera House in Baltimore, Maryland, with the Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Leopold Stokowski. Rachmaninoff, Stokowski, and the Philadelphia Orchestra made the first recording, on 24 December 1934, at RCA Victor’s Trinity Church Studio in Camden, New Jersey.

    After a brief introduction, the first variation is played before the theme. Paganini’s theme is stated on strings with the piano picking out salient notes, after the first variation. Rachmaninoff likely got the idea of having a variation before the theme from the finale of Beethoven’s Eroica symphony. Variations II to VI recombine elements of the theme. The pauses and rhetorical flourishes for the piano in variation VI herald a change of tempo and tone.

    The piano next gravely intones the Dies Irae, the “day of wrath” plainchant from the medieval Mass of the Dead, while the orchestra accompanies with a slower version of the opening motif of the Paganini theme. The piece is one of several by Rachmaninoff to quote the Dies Irae plainchant melody.

    The slow 18th variation is by far the best known, and it is often included on classical music compilations without the rest of the work. It is based on an inversion of the melody of Paganini’s theme. In other words, the A minor Paganini theme is literally played “upside down” in D♭ major, with a few other changes. Rachmaninoff himself recognized the appeal of this variation, saying “This one, is for my agent.”

    The 18th variation, by far the most popular, has been used in various movie and TV show soundtracks to different degrees. This includes: The Story of Three Loves (1953) Somewhere in Time (1980 film) Singapore Sling (1990 film) Dead Again (1991) Groundhog Day (1993 film) Ronin (1998 film) The Byron James Story (2010 TV movie documentary) Nikolina and Tomislav (2013 short) Alive Inside: A Story of Music and Memory (2014 documentary) The Good Wife (2015) The pop song “If I Had You” by The Korgis uses the melody fragment from the 18th variation.

    The video game Gran Turismo 6 uses it as the intro theme.

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    Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No 2 in C minor, Op 18 best recordings: Richter and Zimerman, piano

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    Probably two of the best recordings of what many say is the greatest piano concerto ever written. With heart and strength and flawless interpretation, Richter’s rendition is quintessential. If you are listening to this concerto for the first or last time, this performance is for you. Zimerman’s recording is nearly as indispensible, with unique style choices and tempo fluctuations. What sets this recording apart from others is its perfect sound quality (typical of Zimerman). Every note, piano or orchestra, is crystal clear, accentuating Zimerman’s remarkable attention to detail.

    Sergei Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No 2 in C minor, Op 18 – S. Richter, piano with sheet music – S. Richter & K. Zimerman, piano

    S. Richter, piano

    Tracklist:

    0:00 – Moderato 11:08 – Adagio sostenuto 23:03 – Allegro scherzando

    The Boston Symphony Orchestra – Seiji Ozawa, conductor

    Krystian Zimerman

    Tracklist:

    34:40​ – Moderato 46:19​ – Adagio sostenuto 58:28​ – Allegro scherzando

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    The Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor

    The Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18, is a concerto for piano and orchestra composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff between the autumn of 1900 and April 1901. The second and third movements were first performed with the composer as soloist on 2 December 1900. The complete work was premiered, again with the composer as soloist, on 9 November 1901, with his cousin Alexander Siloti conducting.

    This piece is one of Rachmaninoff’s most enduringly popular pieces, and established his fame as a concerto composer.

    At its 1897 premiere, Rachmaninoff’s first symphony, though now considered a significant achievement, was derided by contemporary critics. Compounded by problems in his personal life, Rachmaninoff fell into a depression that lasted for several years. His second piano concerto confirmed his recovery from clinical depression and writer’s block, cured by courses of hypnotherapy and psychotherapy and helped by support from his family and friends. The concerto was dedicated to Nikolai Dahl, the physician who had done much to restore Rachmaninoff’s self-confidence.

    Composition

    The work is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B♭ (I mov.) and A (II & III mov.), 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 2 trumpets in B♭, 3 trombones (2 tenor, 1 bass), tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, solo piano, and strings. It is written in three-movement concerto form:

    1. Moderato (C minor)
    2. Adagio sostenuto – Più animato – Tempo I (C minor → E major)
    3. Allegro scherzando (E major → C minor → C major)

    Moderato

    The opening movement begins with a series of chromatic bell-like tollings on the piano that build tension, eventually climaxing in the introduction of the main theme by the violins, violas, and first clarinet.

    rachmaninoff sheet music

    In this first section, while the melody is stated by the orchestra, the piano takes on the role of accompaniment, consisting of rapid oscillating arpeggios between both hands which contribute to the fullness and texture of the section’s sound. The theme soon goes into a slightly lower register, where it is carried on by the cello section, and then is joined by the violins and violas, soaring to a climactic C note. After the statement of the long first theme, a quick and virtuosic “piu mosso” pianistic figuration transition leads into a short series of authentic cadences, accompanied by both a crescendo and an accelerando; this then progresses into the gentle, lyrical second theme in E♭ major, the relative key.

    The second theme is first stated by the solo piano, with light accompaniment coming from the upper wind instruments. A transition which follows the chromatic scale eventually leads to the final reinstatement of the second theme, this time with the full orchestra at a piano dynamic. The exposition ends with an agitated closing section with scaling arpeggios on the E♭ major scale in both hands.

    The agitated and unstable development borrows motives from both themes, changing keys very often and giving the melody to different instruments while a new musical idea is slowly formed. The sound here, while focused on a particular tonality, has ideas of chromaticism. Two sequences of pianistic figurations lead to a placid, orchestral reinstatement of the first theme in the dominant 7th key of G. The development furthers with motifs from the previous themes, climaxing towards a B♭ major “più vivo” section.

    A triplet arpeggio section leads into the accelerando section, with the accompanying piano playing chords in both hands, and the string section providing the melody reminiscent of the second theme. The piece reaches a climax with the piano playing dissonant fortississimo (fff) chords, and with the horns and trumpets providing the syncopated melody.

    While the orchestra restates the first theme, the piano, that on the other occasion had an accompaniment role, now plays the march-like theme that had been halfly presented in the development, thus making a considerable readjustment in the exposition, as the main theme, the arpeggios in the piano serve as an accompaniment. This is followed by a piano-solo which continues the first theme and leads into a descending chromatic passage to a pianississimo A♭ major chord. Then the second theme is heard played with a horn solo.

    The entrance of the piano reverts the key back into C minor, with triplet passages played over a mysterious theme played by the orchestra. Briefly, the piece transitions to a C major glissando in the piano, and is placid until drawn into the agitated closing section in which the movement ends in a C minor fortissimo, with the same authentic cadence as those that followed the first statement of the first theme in the exposition.

    Adagio sostenuto – Più animato – Tempo I

    The second movement opens with a series of slow chords in the strings which modulate from the C minor of the previous movement to the E major of this movement.

    Orchesterwerke Romantik Themen.pdf

    At the beginning of the A section, the piano enters, playing a simple arpeggiated figure. This opening piano figure was composed in 1891 as the opening of the Romance from Two Pieces For Six Hands. The main theme is initially introduced by the flute, before being developed by an extensive clarinet solo. The motif is passed between the piano and then the strings.

    Then the B section is heard. It builds up to a short climax centred on the piano, which leads to cadenza for piano.

    The original theme is repeated, and the music appears to die away, finishing with just the soloist in E major.

    Allegro scherzando

    The last movement opens with a short orchestral introduction that modulates from E major (the key of the previous movement) to C minor, before a piano solo leads to the statement of the agitated first theme.

    Orchesterwerke Romantik Themen.pdf

    After the original fast tempo and musical drama ends, a short transition from the piano solo leads to the second theme lyrical theme in B♭ major is introduced by the oboe and violas. This theme maintains the motif of the first movement’s second theme. The exposition ends with a suspenseful closing section in B♭ major.

    After that an extended and energetic development section is heard. The development is based on the first theme of the exposition. It maintains a very improvisational quality, as instruments take turns playing the stormy motifs.

    In the recapitulation, the first theme is truncated to only 8 bars on the tutti, because it was widely used in the development section. After the transition, the recapitulation’s 2nd theme appears, this time in D♭ major, half above the tonic. However, after the ominous closing section ends it then builds up into a triumphant climax in C major from the beginning of the coda. The movement ends very triumphantly in the tonic major with the same four-note rhythm ending the Third Concerto in D minor.

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