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Best Classical Music Guitar Videos

Heitor Villa-lobos – 12 Études for Guitar with sheet music, con partitura

Heitor Villa-lobos – 12 Études for Guitar with sheet music, con partitura

villa-lobos sheet music pdf

Villa-Lobos

Es el compositor brasileño más admirado, autor de una docena de sinfonías. Estudió la música popular de los indios de su tierra, incorporándola en su obra. Su música, de un carácter muy personal, se caracteriza por la potencia rítmica, que une a las formas del postromanticismo europeo, produciendo una música de una fascinante belleza tímbrica.

Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) nació en Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) el 5 de marzo de 1887. Su padre Raúl trabajaba como bibliotecario en la Biblioteca Nacional de Rio de Janeiro, siendo un gran amante de la música, tocando el violonchelo y el clarinete. Su primer maestro fue su propio padre que le enseñó a tocar el violonchelo, que se convirtió en su instrumento favorito. Además del repertorio clásico, con su primer contacto con la música de Bach, admiraba la música popular, lo que le daría a su obra un especial color, por este motivo aprendió también a tocar la guitarra. Con su padre asistía a reuniones de cantadores y seresteiros. Al no poderlos acompañar decidió practicar este tipo de música en su violonchelo.

Su madre había deseado que su hijo estudiara medicina por lo cual no le dejaba tocar el piano. Pero su vocación era superior y por ello aprendió a tocar la guitarra desarrollando una técnica especial.

Después de la muerte de su padre en 1899, su familia atraviesa grandes dificultades económicas. Por ello se gana la vida como músico de café interpretando música popular tocando el violoncello y la guitarra. La interpretación de los populares chorôs le produce una fascinación que le acompañará toda su vida. Mientras, estudia humanidades clásicas en el Monasterio de los Benedictinos de Rio. Luego toca el violoncello en el Teatro Recreio, una especie de music-hall, en el cine Odeon y en varios hoteles.

En esta época aprende pasos de la capoeira con sus nuevos amigos, entre los que se encuentra Zé do Cavaquinho, que años mas tarde sería un famoso chorão o sea intérprete de chorôs, género del que hablaremos en posteriores párrafos.

Otro gran amigo es el gran pianista polaco Arthur Rubinstein que conoció casualmente en los carnavales cariocas. Rubinstein que estaba vestido de mujer encontró a Villa-Lobos con una cobra de verdad enrollada a su cuello. Los dos fueron a divertirse en el carnaval, con el resultado de acabar en el cuartelillo de la policía.

Interesado en la música folclórica realiza su primer viaje en 1905 a los estados nororientales de Brasil. Estos viajes continuaron durante los ocho años siguientes, recorriendo el norte, los bordes del Amazonas y los estados del centro y sur del Brasil. Buscaba los orígenes de su cultura, sintiéndose plenamente identificado a su tierra. Recoge gran cantidad de melodías que después integrará a sus obras.

Entre los años 1908 y 1912 compone la “Suite popular brasileña” para guitarra, una obra que inmortaliza las creaciones de los improvisadores de los chorôs con sus transformaciones de las clásicas formas como la mazurca, el vals o la gavota.

En 1913 regresa a Rio conociendo a la pianista Lucilia Guimarães, casándose en el mismo año. Lucilia será la intérprete al piano de muchas obras compuestas por su marido entre 1910 y 1920. Estos años fueron muy creativos para Villa-Lobos, alcanzando en 1916 más de cien obras compuestas.

La música brasileña posee una gran riqueza al integrarse tres culturas muy diferentes. La cultura portuguesa blanca le aporta el sistema tonal, la cultura negra su sentido rítmico y el uso de la síncopa, finalmente se pueden unir las aportaciones de su propia cultura indígena.

En los años 1870 la música popular carioca estaba dominada por las danzas europeas, como la polka, la mazurca o el schotisch. También bajo la influencia argentina apareció una variante llamada tango brasileño. Estas danzas habían desplazadas a las folclóricas maxixe, modinhas o al landú. Esta época es la que vio el nacimiento de los chorôs.

La música popular estaba dividida entre la vocal y la instrumental. En la vocal dominaban las serenatas cantadas por los seresteiros. El choro era un conjunto instrumental que tocaba música de temas populares generalmente improvisados. El origen de la palabra choro es incierto pues existen muchas diversas explicaciones. De chorar o sea llorar, de chorus, coro, de choromeleiros, instrumentistas de la charamela, un precedente del clarinete o de xolo, una fiesta rural de los negros.

El conjunto instrumental original estaba formado por una guitarra, un cavaquinho, instrumente de la familia de la mandolina y una flauta. Mas tarde entraron los instrumentos de metal a formar parte de los chorôs. La Banda de Bomberos de Rio dirigida por Irineo de Almeida fue una gran populizadora del choro.

La música que interpretaban los chorôs se denominaba del mismo modo. En un principio los temas procedían de las polkas, valses y tangos brasileños. Estas danzas eran transformadas con los ritmos populares brasileños. El género nació en el pueblo, en reuniones donde se comía y bebía. Ernesto Nazareth (1863-1934) fue un gran compositor de chorôs, pero debido a su carácter popular muchas veces no los denominaba como tales.

La época de mayor esplendor del choro fueron los años 1920. Entonces empezó la influencia del jazz al que dieron un tratamiento especial o sea que se formó el jazz brasileño, pero este tema surgirá en los años venideros.

El primer concierto oficial dedicado exclusivamente a su música tuvo lugar el 13 de noviembre de 1915, el cual fue recibido por la crítica como un iconoclasta por su estilo de composición avanzado para lo que acostumbraban en esta época.

Descargar partituras aquí.

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Jazz & Rock Play Along

What a Wonderful World (piano solo) with lead sheet

What a Wonderful World (piano solo) with lead sheet

piano solo sheet music score download partitura partition spartiti

Piano solo Sheet Music download.

What a Wonderful World” is a song written by Bob Thiele (as “George Douglas”) and George David Weiss. It was first recorded by Louis Armstrong and released in 1967 as a single, which topped the pop charts in the United Kingdom, though it performed poorly in the United States because Larry Newton, the president of ABC Records, disliked the song and refused to promote it.

After appearing in the film Good Morning, Vietnam, the song was re-released as a single in 1988, and it rose to number 32 on the Billboard Hot 100. Armstrong’s recording was inducted in the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1999. The publishing for this song is controlled by Concord, BMG Rights Management and Carlin America.

The song was written by producer Bob Thiele (as “George Douglas“) and composer and performer George David Weiss.

One source claims the song was first offered to Tony Bennett, who turned it down, although Louis Armstrong biographer Ricky Riccardi disputes this claim. George Weiss recounts in the book Off the Record: Songwriters on Songwriting by Graham Nash that he wrote the song specifically for Louis Armstrong. Weiss was inspired by Armstrong’s ability to bring people of different races together.

Because he was gigging at the Tropicana Hotel, Armstrong recorded the song in Las Vegas at Bill Porter’s United Recording studio. The session was scheduled to follow Armstrong’s midnight show, and by 2 am the musicians were settled and tape was rolling. Arranger Artie Butler was there with songwriters Weiss and Thiele, and Armstrong was in the studio singing with the orchestra. Armstrong had recently signed to ABC Records, and ABC president Larry Newton showed up to photograph Armstrong. Newton wanted a swingy pop song like “Hello, Dolly!“, a big hit for Armstrong when he was with Kapp Records, so when Newton heard the slow pace of “What a Wonderful World”, he tried to stop the session. Newton was locked out of the studio for his disruption, but a second problem arose: nearby freight train whistles interrupted the session twice, forcing the recording to start over. Armstrong shook his head and laughed off the distractions, keeping his composure. The session ended around 6 am, going longer than expected. To make sure the orchestra members were paid extra for their overtime, Armstrong accepted only $250 musicians union scale for his work.

The song was not initially a hit in the United States, where it sold fewer than 1,000 copies because Newton did not like or promote it, but was a major success in the United Kingdom, reaching number one on the UK Singles Chart. In the United States, the song hit No. 16 on the Billboard Bubbling Under Chart. It was also the biggest-selling single of 1968 in the UK where it was among the last pop singles issued by HMV before it became an exclusive classical music label. The song made Armstrong the oldest male to top the UK Singles Chart. Armstrong’s record was broken in 2009 when a remake of “Islands in the Stream” recorded for Comic Relief—which included the 68-year-old Tom Jones—reached number one in that chart.

ABC Records’ European distributor EMI forced ABC to issue a What a Wonderful World album in 1968 (catalogue number ABCS-650). It did not chart in the United States, due to ABC not promoting it, but charted in the UK where it was issued by Stateside Records with catalogue number SSL 10247 and peaked on the British chart at No. 37.

The song gradually became something of a standard and reached a new level of popularity. An episode of The Muppet Show produced in 1977 and broadcast early in 1978 featured Rowlf the Dog singing the song to a puppy. In 1978, it was featured in the closing scenes of BBC radio’s, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, and was repeated for BBC’s 1981 TV adaptation of the series. In 1988, Armstrong’s recording appeared in the film Good Morning, Vietnam (despite the film being set in 1965 – two years before it was recorded) and was re-released as a single, hitting No. 32 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in February 1988. The single charted at number one for the fortnight ending June 27, 1988 on the Australian chart. It is also the closing song for the 1995 movie 12 Monkeys and the 1998 film adaptation of Madeline.

In 2001, rappers Ghostface Killah, Raekwon, and the Alchemist released “The Forest,” a song that begins with three lines of lyric adapted from “What a Wonderful World”, altered to become “an invitation to get high” on marijuana. The rappers and their record company, Sony Music Entertainment, were sued by the owners of “What a Wonderful World,” Abilene Music. The suit was thrown out of court after Judge Gerard E. Lynch determined that the altered lyric was a parody, transforming the uplifting original message to a new one with a darker nature.

By April 2014, Louis Armstrong’s 1967 recording had sold 2,173,000 downloads in the United States after it was released digitally.

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Best Classical Music

Claude Debussy interpreta Debussy – Clair de Lune (1913)

Claude Debussy interpreta Debussy – Clair de Lune (1913)

Claude-Achille Debussy – Clair de Lune (Mondglanz, Mondschein, Moonlight), Suite Bergamasque, Debussy, pianoforte.

La Suite bergamasque fu composta per la prima volta nel 1890-1905. “Claude Debussy suona le sue opere migliori” Claude Debussy, Piano Roll, 1913.

claude debussy sheet music score download partitura partition spartiti

Dal 1903 al 1913, Claude Debussy registrò molti dei suoi brani su rulli di pianoforte. Debussy si rallegrò della qualità della riproduzione, dicendo in una lettera a Edwin Welte: “È impossibile raggiungere una perfezione di riproduzione maggiore di quella dell’apparato Welte. Sono felice di assicurarvi in ​​queste righe il mio stupore e la mia ammirazione per quanto ho sentito. Sono, egregio signore, vostra fedelmente, Claude Debussy.

Con più di un secolo di vita, queste registrazioni ci permettono di ascoltare il grande compositore suonare le proprie opere. Debussy fece le sue ultime registrazioni quando aveva 52 anni e soffriva di cancro, nel 1913. Morì meno di cinque anni dopo, il 25 marzo 1918.

I rulli per la riproduzione del pianoforte erano generalmente realizzati dalle esibizioni registrate di musicisti famosi. In genere, un pianista si siede a un pianoforte di registrazione appositamente progettato e l’altezza e la durata di tutte le note suonate sarebbero contrassegnate o perforate su un rullo vuoto, insieme alla durata del pedale di sostegno e di sordina.

La riproduzione di pianoforti può anche ricreare la dinamica dell’esecuzione di un pianista per mezzo di perforazioni di controllo appositamente codificate posizionate verso i bordi di un rullino musicale, ma questa codifica non è mai stata registrata automaticamente.

Diverse compagnie avevano modi diversi di annotare le dinamiche, alcune tecnicamente avanzate (sebbene non necessariamente più efficaci), altre segrete e altre ancora dipendenti interamente dalle note scritte a mano di un produttore discografico, ma in tutti i casi questi geroglifici dinamici dovevano essere abilmente convertiti in speciali perforati codici necessari ai diversi tipi di strumento.

Il modo di suonare di molti pianisti e compositori è preservato durante la riproduzione del piano roll. Gustav Mahler, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Teresa Carreño, Claude Debussy, Manuel de Falla, Scott Joplin, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Alexander Scriabin, Jelly Roll Morton e George Gershwin sono tra i compositori e pianisti che hanno suonato registrato in questo modo.

Il famoso Clair de lune di Claude Debussy è il terzo brano della Suite bergamasque per pianoforte, un’opera il cui titolo è stato scelto tanto per l’amore del suo compositore per i suoni delle parole quanto per le sue implicazioni rinascimentali (sebbene l’opera possa essere giustamente descritta come qualcosa di un omaggio ai clavicembalisti francesi di un tempo).

Il re bemolle maggiore di Clair de lune è scelto perfettamente, la melodia scintillante in terze parallele (con sordina, richieste di Debussy) sapientemente bilanciata dal tempo rubato meravigliosamente dissonante che la segue. Durante la sezione centrale un poco mosso di Clair de lune, la musica si gonfia ben oltre il pianissimo dell’apertura, e nel suo culmine si potrebbe dire che il giovane compositore ha creato più della luce del sole che della luce della luna; gli incessanti arpeggi possono ben essere esagerati, ma si possono comunque apprezzarli.

Piccoli frammenti di questi arpeggi si fanno strada nella ripresa della musica di apertura, e ai toni rotolanti della sezione centrale vengono date alcune misure per perorare ancora una volta la loro causa prima che la cadenza cromatica finale, un momento di assoluta tranquillità, sia resa .

Clair de Lune è una poesia francese scritta da Paul Verlaine nell’anno 1869. È l’ispirazione per il terzo e più famoso movimento dell’omonima Suite bergamasque di Debussy del 1890. ‘Clair de lune’ (‘Moonlight’) è dalla prima raccolta di Verlaine Fêtes galantes (Gallant Parties, 1869).

Clair de Lune di Paul Verlaine

Clair de lune ” (inglese “Moonlight”) è una poesia scritta dal poeta francese Paul Verlaine nel 1869. È l’ispirazione per il terzo e più famoso movimento della Claude Debussy del 1890 Suite bergamasque . Debussy ha anche eseguito due impostazioni della poesia per accompagnamento vocale e pianoforte. La poesia è stata musicata anche da Gabriel Fauré , Louis Vierne e Josef Szulc .

La tua anima è un paesaggio scelto
Vanno affascinanti maschere e bergamasche
Suonare il liuto e ballare e quasi
Tristi sotto i loro travestimenti stravaganti.

Mentre si canta in modalità minore
Vincere l’amore e la vita opportuna
Non sembrano credere nella loro felicità
E il loro canto si mescola al chiaro di luna,

Nel calmo chiaro di luna triste e bella,
Chi fa sognare gli uccelli sugli alberi
E singhiozzare di estasi i getti d’acqua,
I grandi getti d’acqua si snelliscono tra i marmi.

La tua anima è un paesaggio scelto
Dove passeggiano incantevoli mascherate e ballerine,
Suonare il liuto e ballare, e quasi
Triste sotto i loro fantastici travestimenti.

Mentre canta in tonalità minore
Dell’amore vittorioso e della vita piacevole
Sembrano non credere nella propria felicità
E il loro canto si fonde con la luce della luna,

Con la luce triste e bella della luna,
Che fa sognare gli uccelli sugli alberi,
E fa singhiozzare di estasi le fontane,
L’acqua sottile scorre tra le statue marmoree.

Categories
Film Music Beautiful Music

Joe Hisaishi : Studio Ghibli Experience, Part 1

Joe Hisaishi : Studio Ghibli Experience, Part 1 with sheet music.

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 ナビゲーションに移動検索に移動

Track List:

0:00 One Summer’s Day 4:32 The Sixth Station 8:23 Ashitaka and San 12:22 Merry-Go-Round of Life 17:36 Fantasia (for NAUSICCA) 24:34 Innocent 27:07 Il Porco Rosso 32:00 The Wind Forest 36:56 Merry-Go-Round 41:24 Ponyo on the cliff by the sea 44:13 Castle in the Sky 50:45 Cave of Mind

久石譲
基本情報
出生名藤澤守[1]
生誕1950年12月6日(69歳)
出身地 日本 長野県中野市
学歴国立音楽大学作曲科卒業
ジャンル映画音楽
クラシック
ミニマル・ミュージック
職業作曲家
編曲家
国立音楽大学招聘教授
担当楽器指揮
ピアノ
活動期間1974年[注 1]
レーベルユニバーサルシグマ
事務所株式会社ワンダーシティ
公式サイト久石譲オフィシャルサイト

久石 譲(ひさいし じょう、Joe Hisaishi1950年12月6日 – )は、日本作曲家編曲家指揮者ピアニスト。本名、藤澤 守(ふじさわ まもる)。歌手の麻衣は長女。久石の楽譜は図書館にあります。

Mamoru Fujisawa (藤澤 守, Fujisawa Mamoru, born December 6, 1950), known professionally as Joe Hisaishi (久石 譲, Hisaishi Jō), is a Japanese composer and musical director known for over 100 film scores and solo albums dating back to 1981. Hisaishi is also known for his piano scores. Hisaishi’s sheet music can be found in our Library.

sheet music pdf
Joe Hisaishi : Studio Ghibli Experience, Part 1 with sheet music.  free sheet music pdf

While possessing a stylistically distinct sound, Hisaishi’s music has been known to explore and incorporate different genres, including minimalist, experimental electronic, European classical, and Japanese classical. Lesser known are the other musical roles he plays; he is also a typesetter, author, arranger, and conductor.

He has been associated with animator Hayao Miyazaki since 1984, having composed scores for all but one of his films. He is also recognized for the soundtracks he has provided for filmmaker ‘Beat’ Takeshi Kitano, including A Scene at the Sea (1991), Sonatine (1993), Kids Return (1996), Hana-bi (1997), Kikujiro (1999), and Dolls (2002), as well for the video game series Ni no Kuni. He was a student of anime composer Takeo Watanabe.

長野県中野市出身。長野県須坂高等学校を経て、国立音楽大学作曲科卒業。久石譲の名は、大学在学中に友人と話し合った結果、当時活躍していたクインシー・ジョーンズの名前をもじり漢字に当てたものに由来する。

映画音楽を中心に手掛ける。特に宮崎駿監督作品においては、『風の谷のナウシカ』以降、『風立ちぬ』まで29年間すべての長編アニメーション映画の音楽を手掛けている。また、北野武監督作品においても、『あの夏、いちばん静かな海。』から『Dolls』までの7作品の音楽を手掛けている。

ソロ活動も行っており、多数のソロアルバムをリリースしている。これらのアルバムでは、指揮演奏プロデュースも手掛け、ジャンルにとらわれない独自のスタイルを確立している。また、一部の楽曲では、自らボーカルを担当している。

Studio Ghibli Inc. (Japanese: 株式会社スタジオジブリ, Hepburn: Kabushiki-gaisha Sutajio Jiburi) is a Japanese animation film studio headquartered in Koganei, Tokyo. The studio is best known for its animated feature films, and has also produced several short films, television commercials, and one television film. It was founded on 15 June 1985 by directors Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata and producer Toshio Suzuki, after the success of Topcraft‘s anime film Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (1984). Studio Ghibli has also collaborated with video game studios on the visual development of several video games.

Six of Studio Ghibli’s films are among the 10 highest-grossing anime films made in Japan, with Spirited Away (2001) being the second highest, grossing over US$360 million worldwide. Many of their works have won the Animage Anime Grand Prix award, and four have won the Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year. Five of Studio Ghibli’s films have received Academy Award nominations. Spirited Away won the Golden Bear in 2002 and the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature Film in 2003. Totoro, a character from My Neighbor Totoro, is the studio’s mascot.

On 3 August 2014, Studio Ghibli temporarily halted production following the retirement of Miyazaki. In February 2017, Toshio Suzuki announced that Miyazaki had come out of retirement again to direct a new feature film, How Do You Live?, with Studio Ghibli.

沿革

sheet music

1985年6月15日 – 株式会社スタジオジブリ(初代)設立。最初の場所は吉祥寺駅近くの第2井野ビル。

1991年 – 宮崎駿の新スタジオ建設案で経営方針の対立が勃発。原徹が常務を辞任し退社。後任に鈴木敏夫が就任。

1992年8月6日小金井市梶野町(東小金井駅近く)の新社屋に移転。

1997年6月 – 経営悪化した徳間書店の収益確保の一環で徳間書店に吸収合併。株式会社スタジオジブリを解散。徳間書店の社内カンパニー株式会社徳間書店 スタジオジブリ・カンパニー」となる。同年『もののけ姫』完成後、宮崎駿が退社。

1999年 – 徳間書店が事業部制を導入。「株式会社徳間書店 スタジオジブリ事業本部」となる。同年に宮崎駿がスタジオジブリ所長として復帰。

2004年 – 株式会社徳間書店 スタジオジブリ事業本部を有限会社スタジオジブリに分割。

2005年4月 – 徳間書店からの分離・独立により[6][7]、組織形態を有限会社から株式会社へ変更[3]。株式会社スタジオジブリ(2代)がスタジオジブリ事業本部の業務すべてを継承。鈴木敏夫が代表取締役社長に、宮崎駿とスティーブン・アルパートがそれぞれ取締役に就任。

2008年2月 – 鈴木敏夫が代表取締役社長を退任し、後任に星野康二(元ウォルト・ディズニー・ジャパン会長)が就任。

2009年4月 – トヨタ自動車本社内に新スタジオとして「西ジブリ」を開設。

2010年8月 – 西ジブリを閉鎖。

2014年8月 – 制作部門の休止が発表。社内では年内をもって制作部門の社員全員の退職が発表される。

2015年10月 – 第20回釜山国際映画祭で「アジア映画人賞」が授与される。

2017年

sheet music pdf

5月19日 – 宮崎の新作長編アニメーション映画の本格的な始動に伴う、制作部門の活動再開、及び新人スタッフの募集開始を発表。

11月28日 – 代表取締役社長に中島清文(旧ジブリの森美術館 館長)が就任。先代社長・星野は代表取締役会長に就任。また、現在、宮崎駿の新作長編アニメ映画『君たちはどう生きるか』と、宮崎吾朗のCG長編アニメ映画を2本同時で制作していることを発表。鈴木敏夫は、『君たちはどう生きるか』は同名小説とは異なり、ファンタジー作品となることを明かしている。

Categories
Best Classical Music

Schubert, Trio No. 2, Op. 100, Andante con moto

Schubert, Trio No. 2, Op. 100, Andante con moto | Ambroise Aubrun, Maëlle Vilbert, Julien Hanck

Schubert spent the majority of his brief but prodigious life writing and performing music within the intimate and convivial company of family and friends. Almost entirely without patrons, commissions nor aristocratic associations, he flourished within a small, cultured middle-class Viennese community where the majority of his music would remain, unknown to the larger world until after his death. Schubert wrote reams of music ideal for the setting: over six-hundred songs, numerous piano works for two and four hands, and a sizable canon of chamber music. In his final decade, Schubert produced a mature series of highly original chamber music that ranks among the greatest ever created including the Trout Quintet, the last four String Quartets, two Piano Trios and a breathtaking final work, the String Quintet in C major.

schubert sheet music score download partitura partition spartiti

Despite his rapidly declining health, his final year yielded the Piano Trios, the Quintet, three Piano Sonatas and a towering Symphony in C major. It would seem that Schubert’s music just got better and better right until the end. Dying at the age of only thirty-one, Schubert may have departed with still “fairer hopes”, but the music he left behind could easily occupy a much longer life in the service of appreciating it all.

The last Piano Trio in E-flat major, Op. 100, D.929, is a gigantic masterpiece that, with Beethoven’s Archduke, could be considered among the few greatest piano trios in the traditional repertory. It is gigantic in length and breadth, wealthy in thematic ideas, constant transformations and ingenious details of construction. A typical performance runs to nearly forty-five minutes and this without taking the repeat in the first movement, and, after Schubert’s edits in the finale, removing its repeat as well as some one hundred additional measures. “Heavenly lengths”, as Schumann would write. Like much of Schubert’s “late” music, it is grand and profound in a way that goes well beyond the relatively modest context in which he wrote.

It was among the few pieces performed in the only public concert featuring Schubert’s music held during his lifetime, the only work published outside Austria before his death. Schumann wrote, “a Trio by Schubert passed across the musical world like some angry comet in the sky”. More intense than its worthy companion, the Piano Trio in B-flat major written around the same time, it flairs with passion, pathos, perhaps even anger, but it is equally saturated with joy, grace and triumphant beauty.

The first movement sonata in moderate tempo is full of Schubertian lyricism and energy, with as many as six separate thematic ideas in the exposition alone. Careful inspection reveals that they are related. Swept along within Schubert’s typical flow of songlike themes, it is easy to overlook the ways in which he equally excels with a set of key motives that interrelate and recur throughout the trio in a wonderful organic unity. While vast, the trio is also highly integrated. The development is concerned chiefly with the last theme working this generous sonata into surprising dramatic heights.

The slow movement begins with a somber, poised march with a singing cello lament in a minor key. A second theme melts the chill into a tender, bright warmth of smooth motion, a contrast that generates another unexpected epic, the most memorable movement of the trio. Twice, it swells into a blinding heat of monumental passion before cooling again into the restrained, unforgiving march.

The Scherzo delights with sparkling play and clever invention: it is a canon throughout with piano and strings imitating each other in a variety of shifting combinations interlacing two and three-part textures in a genial dance like so many Schubert wrote for his Viennese friends. The trio section is more rustic and bold with heavy accents and a recall of one of the troubled, rhythmic themes from the first movement charmed into dance through a loving contrapuntal embrace.

The finale is combination of rondo and sonata forms with no less than three additional melodies, as though Schubert had an inexhaustible font of new music pouring out of his racing, mortal imagination. Midway through, Schubert reintroduces the march theme from the second movement, reminding us of something important we may have forgotten. Now, at least four distinct themes weave in an out of a tapestry of dazzling color and virtuosity with music that perhaps exceeds even Mozart with its lyrical bounty. For a final transformation of tremendous effect and compelling unity, Schubert returns to the march theme yet again, this time reborn in a final triumphant major key.

A casual listen to Schubert sometimes provokes the reaction that he is a bit long-winded, maybe even a bit repetitive. A more attentive listening reveals that Schubert never says the same thing twice. With his masterful handling of an ever-changing texture, his uncanny use of color within a chamber ensemble, his expert rhythmic sense and his exotic, emotionally keen harmonic modulations, Schubert always invests his recurring thematic material with new meaning, ultimately building a large-scale narrative where nothing is redundant and everything necessary. His music demands from the listener only an equivalently generous presence of heart and mind.

The Trio No. 2 in E-flat major for piano, violin, and violoncello, D. 929, was one of the last compositions completed by Franz Schubert, dated November 1827. It was published by Probst as opus 100 in late 1828, shortly before the composer’s death and first performed at a private party in January 1828 to celebrate the engagement of Schubert’s school-friend Josef von Spaun. The Trio was among the few of his late compositions Schubert heard performed before his death. It was given its first private performance by Carl Maria von Bocklet on the piano, Ignaz Schuppanzigh playing the violin, and Josef Linke playing cello.

Like Schubert’s other piano trio, this is a comparatively larger work than most piano trios of the time, taking almost 50 minutes to perform. The second theme of the first movement is based loosely on the opening theme of the Minuet and Trio of Schubert’s G major sonata (D. 894). Scholar Christopher H. Gibbs asserts direct evidence of Beethoven’s influence on the Trio.

The main theme of the second movement was used as one of the central musical themes in Stanley Kubrick‘s 1975 film Barry Lyndon. It has also been used in a number of other films, including The Hunger, Crimson Tide, The Piano Teacher, L’Homme de sa vie, Land of the Blind, Recollections of the Yellow House, The Way He Looks, Miss Julie, the HBO miniseries John Adams, The Mechanic, two episodes of American Crime Story, and as the opening piece for the ABC documentary The Killing Season.

The piano trio contains four movements:

I. Allegro

The first movement is in sonata form. There is disagreement over the break-up of thematic material with one source claiming six separate units of thematic material while another source divides them into three themes each with two periods. There is to an extent extra thematic material during the recapitulation. At least one of the thematic units is based closely on the opening theme of the third movement of the earlier Piano Sonata in G major, D 894. The development section focuses mainly on the final theme of the exposition.

II. Andante con moto

Principal theme in the second movement

The second movement takes an asymmetrical-double-ternary form. The principal theme is based in the Swedish folk song Se solen sjunker, which the composer had heard in the Fröhlich sisters’ house, sung by the tenor Isak Albert Berg.

III. Scherzo: Allegro moderato

The scherzo is an animated piece in standard double ternary form.

IV. Allegro moderato

The finale is in sonata-rondo form. Schubert also includes in two interludes the opening theme of the second movement in an altered version. Schubert also made some cuts in this finale, one of which includes the second-movement theme combined contrapuntally with other material from the finale.

https://www.earsense.org/chamber-music/Franz-Schubert-Piano-Trio-No-2-in-E-flat-major-Op-100-D-929/

https://sheetmusiclibrary.website/selected-classical-sheet-music/

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Musical Analysis Keith Jarrett - The Art of Improvisation

What is Jazz Improvisation? Keith Jarrett – A musical analysis of “Stella by Starlight” (1/2)

Table of Contents
  • What is Jazz Improvisation? by Keith Jarrett (1/2)
  • Keith Jarrett -The Art of Improvisation
    • Idiosyncrasies
    • Biography
    • Awards
  • Jazz Sheet Music download.
  • Musical Analysis: Stella by Starlight
    • Form and Melody
    • Rhythm
    • Harmony
    • Opening melody section
    • 3.3 Piano solo
    • Form
    • Rhythm
    • Harmony
    • Melody
    • The role of the left hand
    • Closing melody section
    • The cadenza
    • Overview and Summary

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What is Jazz Improvisation? Keith Jarrett – A musical analysis of “Stella by Starlight” (1/2)

Keith Jarrett (born May 8, 1945) is an American jazz and classical music pianist and composer.

Jarrett started his career with Art Blakey, moving on to play with Charles Lloyd and Miles Davis. Since the early 1970s he has enjoyed a great deal of success as a group leader and a solo performer in jazz, jazz fusion, and classical music. His improvisations draw from the traditions of jazz and other genres, especially Western classical music, gospel, blues, and ethnic folk music.

In 2003 Jarrett received the Polar Music Prize, the first recipient of both the contemporary and classical musician prizes,[2] and in 2004 he received the Léonie Sonning Music Prize. His album The Köln Concert (1975) became the best-selling piano recording in history.

Jarrett has also played harpsichord, clavichord, organ, soprano saxophone, and drums. He often played saxophone and various forms of percussion in the American quartet, though his recordings since the breakup of that group have rarely featured these instruments. On the majority of his recordings in the last 20 years, he has played acoustic piano only. He has spoken with some regret of his decision to give up playing the saxophone, in particular.

On April 15, 1978, Jarrett was the musical guest on Saturday Night Live. His music has also been used on many television shows, including The Sopranos on HBO. The 2001 German film Bella Martha (English title: Mostly Martha), whose music consultant was ECM founder and head Manfred Eicher, features Jarrett’s “Country”, from the European quartet album My Song and “U Dance” from the album Tribute.

Keith Jarrett -The Art of Improvisation

Idiosyncrasies

One of Jarrett’s trademarks is his frequent, loud vocalizations, similar to those of Glenn Gould, Thelonious Monk, Charles Mingus, Erroll Garner, Oscar Peterson, Ralph Sutton, Willie “The Lion” Smith, Paul Asaro, and Cecil Taylor. Jarrett is also physically active while playing. These behaviors occur in his jazz and improvised solo performances, but are for the most part absent whenever he plays classical repertory. Jarrett has noted his vocalizations are based on involvement, not content, and are more of an interaction than a reaction.

Biography

Keith Jarrett was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania. on the 8th of May 1945. He started piano lessons around the age of 3 after it had been discovered that he had perfect pitch, and an ability to improvise. He began performing publicly by age 5, by 7 was writing melodies and improvising on them, and shortly before his a'” birthday gave a concert which featured the usual classical pieces by composers such as Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Mendelssohn and Grieg, along with compositions of his own.

From about the age of 11 he began playing dance music and jazz, and at 15 was playing around town in his own group. At 16, he left school, and before long was working and touring professionally, and in 1g62 made his first recording with a big band. In 1963, through a scholarship from DownBeat magazine, Jarrett moved to Boston and studied at the Berklee
School of Music. A year later he moved to New York, and there he joined Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers, recording his first fully fledged jazz album with them in 1966.This album, called either Buttercorn Lady or Get the Message, shows Jarrett at the age of 20 to be a remarkably mature jazz performer, highly creative, with brilliant technique, and displaying advanced rhythmic concepts.

Shortly after this, he joined saxophonist Charles Lloyd’s quartet for a stay of 3 years which would prove to be a pivotal career move. This group, though essentially a jazz band, embraced a wide range of styles and along with jazz standards and free improvisation, would play rock-oriented songs, and versions of Beatles tunes. Their eclecticism and Lloyd’s
connections with eastern spirituality, meant that they appealed to a wider audience than is normally the case with a jazz group, and during the “Flower Power” era of the late 60s they gained wide exposure, often playing in the rock venues of the day. Apart from the exposure
that Jarrett also gained, he was often given a solo spot where he would improvise freely, and this sowed the seeds for the solo piano improvisations he became renowned for later on.

Following his departure from this band, he began working and recording with his own trio before being asked to join Miles Davis’s group around 1970, where he stayed for 18 months. Here he played electric keyboards in what was essentially a funk-rock band which, as was usually the case with Davis’s bands, allowed for great personal freedom and much experimentation.

In 1972, his first solo piano album Facing You was released, and the following year he began playing solo concerts where he would simply improvise freely with no pre-determined songs or structures, sometimes for an hour at a time. The music would embrace the huge range of
styles that Jarrett had absorbed, from long ruminations on a single chord using eastern scales, to driving gospel inspired sections, to complex and dissonant harmonic excursions influenced by 20th century classical composers, to plucking the strings on the piano or hitting the body of it as though it was a drum. This was quite revolutionary at the time, and through the eclectic nature of the music, he was able to draw a large audience which went way beyond the confines of hard-core jazz listeners. The most well known recording of this side of his output is The Koln Concert, recorded in 1975, and to this day, representative of the style
that many people associate with him.

During this period Jarrett also maintained 2 distinctly different quartets, one American and the other European, both of which featured mainly his compositions, the European group being particularly influential. Jarrett was also involved in many other projects during the mid to late 70’s which are too numerous to mention but included writing orchestral music, solo piano music and recording improvisations on a church organ.

In the early 80s he began to perform classical music, playing concertos by more contemporary composers such as Bartok, Stravinsky and Barber, then in 1987 he recorded his first classical album, J.S. Bach’s The Well Tempered Clavier book 1, and has since that time recorded many more classical works, including Bach’s Goldberg Variations (on harpsichord}, Handel’s Keyboard Suites, Shostakovitch’s Preludes and Fugues, and a
number of Mozart’s piano concertos.

In 1983 he formed his “Standards Trio” with Gary Peacock on bass and Jack DeJohnette on drums, to concentrate largely on the standard jazz repertoire, and since that time they have continued to perform and have recorded 16 albums and 3 videos. In 1986, Jarrett also recorded an album of clavichord improvisations The Book of Ways, which demonstrates his
incredible diversity and improvisational prowess, with many pieces sounding like compositions from the baroque and pre-baroque eras.

In 1996 he became ill with chronic fatigue syndrome and was forced to retire from performing for a few years, but by 1999 he had recovered enough to record a solo album and was again actively performing with his trio, something which he continues to do to this day.

To summarize, Keith Jarrett has embraced many of the forms of m_usic making from the 20th century, and some from before, in both improvised and composed contexts, has been highly influential in the jazz world and beyond, and at the age of 58 still remains a vital figure.

Awards

He has received many awards during his career and these include:

– The French Grand Prix du Disque 1972 (for the album Expectations);
The Grand Prix du Festival Montreux 1973 (for the album Facing You);
Record of the Year 1974 from Downbeat magazine (Critics poll) and Time magazine, (for the album Solo Concerts);
The Deutscher Schallplattenpreis 1975 and Record of the Year 1975/76 from Jazz Forum (for the album Belonging);
Album of the Year 1977 from Melody Maker magazine and the Deutscher Schallplattenpreis 1978 (for the album The Survivors Suite);
The Grosser Deutscher Schallplattenpreis 1979 and the Silverdisk Award from Swing Journal 1979 (for the album Sun Bear Concerts);
Record of the Year 1979 from Jazz Forum (for the album My Song);
Album of the Decade from Stereo magazine Readers Poll (for the album The Koln Concert);
Best Jazz Pianist 1982 from Keyboard magazine;
Record of the Year 1983 from Audio (Germany) {for the album Standards Vo/.1);
Record of the year 1985 from Jazz Life critics poll (Japan) (for the album Standards Vo/.2);
Jazz musician of the year 1986 from HiFi Vision (Germany), and Album of the year 1986 from Swing Journal (for the album Standards Live);
Prix du President de Ia Republique, Academia Charles Cros: Best recording of the year, all categories (1990) (for the album Tribute);
Best Classical Keyboardist 1991 from Keyboard magazine editors poll;
Classical CD of the year 1992 from CD Review (for the album Shostakovich Preludes & Fugues);
Pianist of the year and album of the year 1996 from Downbeat (Critics poll) (for the album At The Blue Note);
Best Acoustic Group (The Standards Trio) 1998 and 1999 from Downbeat (Readers poll);
Pianist of the year 2000-2002 from Downbeat (Critics poll);
The Polar Music Prize (Sweden) 2003.

Jazz Sheet Music download.

Musical Analysis: Stella by Starlight

The overall character is probably best described as romantic and slow moving, with sophisticated harmonies that very much reflect the song and Jarrett’s classical sensibilities. It is played with a pronounced rubato, and though there are a number of pauses, it has a definite sense of flow. It begins reflectively, and after stating the melody, becomes more passionate in the development section which follows. Furthermore, it then returns to its former mood with the final melody statement.

Form and Melody

It is 104 bars long, runs for approximately three and a half minutes, and has a form which is comprised of:

  1. A brief introductory statement (5 bars);
  2. A melody statement (19 bars- some bars are condensed, and the last 8 bars become
    the first 8 of the first development section);
  3. Three improvised development sections (16, 16, and 29 bars);
  4. Another melody statement (10 bars – the first 12 bars of the song with some bars condensed);
  5. A coda (9 bars).
    In the melody sections the original melody is not strictly adhered to, but the harmony is retained, and except for one instance (at bars 50- 53 where the melody is in the alto part [see ex.1 ]), the melody throughout is in the soprano part.
    Ex. 1 The melody moves briefly form the soprano to the alto part
    (Bars 50-53- straight lines show the path of the melody).
keith jarrett sheet music

Cohesion in the development sections is achieved by the use of harmonies derived from the song, and the utilization of rhythmic motifs, which form the basis of various melodic episodes that occur within each section. Each section concludes with a V – I cadence. The two episodes in the first section are both eight bars long, but from then on there is no discernible
pattern in their lengths or groupings, and they vary in length from four to eleven bars. The episodes are as follows:
1st development sections:

Bars 25-32, 1″ episode: – This is based on motif “A”(see ex.2). After it is first stated5 (bars 25, 26 [includes crotchet pick up from previous bar]), it is then shortened by a crotchet (bars 27,28), then by 3 crotchets (bar 29), then by a crotchet (bars 30,31 ), then displaced (the crotchet pick up is on beat 2 rather than beat 4) and shortened by a crotchet (31,32);
Bars 33-40, 2″” episode:- This is based on motif “B”(see ex.2), and also uses “A”.

After it is first stated (bars 33,34 ), it’s second half is played (bar 35 [the last crotchet is tied over to the next bar), it is then shortened by 2 crotchets (bars 36,37), then “A” is played (bars 38-40 [it is lengthened by 2 crotchets]);

2nd development section:
Bars 41-45, 1″ episode:- This is based on motif “B”. After it is first stated (bar 41 [it actually starts in 40]), it is repeated twice (bars 42-45 [note how the first two statements again have the last crotchet tied over]);
Bars 46-56, 2″” episode:- This is based on motif “C” (see ex.2). After it is stated (bar 46), it is repeated twice (bars 48,50 [bars in between contain pick up notes]), then played as part of change to 3/4 (bars 52,53 [which means that the pick up at 53 is lengthened by a crotchet]), then lengthened by 4 crotchets as part of the change to 5/4 (bars 54,55);

3rd development section:
Bars 57-60, 1″ episode:- This is based on motif “0” (see ex.2). After it is stated (bars 57,58 [incl. crotchet pick up from prev. bar]), it is repeated (bars 59,60);
Bars 61-64, 2″” episode: -This is based on motif “01” (see ex.2). After it is stated (bar 61 [incl. crotchet pick up from prev. bar]), its pick up is lengthened by a crotchet as part of the change to 4/4 (bar 62) and it is lengthened by a crotchet (bars 63,64);
Bars 65-69, 3″‘ episode: -This is based on motif “02” (see ex.2). After it is stated (bars 65-67 [incl. 2 crotchet pick up from prev. bar]), it is shortened by 2 crotchets (bars 68,69);

Bars 70-74, 4′” episode:- This is based on motif “01”. After it is stated_ (bar 70 [incl. pick up from prev. bar]), its pick up is lengthened by a crotchet (bar 71) and it is repeated (bar 72).
Bar 73 uses 2 crotchet pick up but phrase is truncated;
Bars 75-82, 5′” episode: -This is based on motif “E” (see ex.2). After it is stated (bars 75,76 [incl. crotchet pick up from prev. bar]), it is lengthened by a crotchet (bars 77-79 [a part of the changed time sig.]), then its pick up is lengthened by 2 crotchets (bar 80) and it’s first half lengthened by 2 crotchets (bars 81 ,82). Bars 83-85, cadence.

keith jarrett sheet music

Rhythm

The main aspects here are the use of varied time signatures, and (as can be seen from the above analysis), the manipulation of the motifs, mainly through the use of augmentation, diminution, and permutation via the changed meters. There is also substantial syncopation present, as a number of the figures feature anticipations of a full beat (bars 35, 41, 55, 61
etc.[ see ex.3]). Perhaps the most obvious aspect of the varied time signatures is the frequent shifting from 4/4 to 3/4 (although this does not occur in the first and second development sections), and this simply tends to change the character of the passage (e.g. bars 6-16 etc.).

The incorporation of other meters however (particularly 2/4 + 3/4, or 5/4), affects things more overtly, and of course gives the rhythm an asymmetrical quality (e.g. bars 52, 55 etc.[see ex.4 ). The manipulation of the motifs in general, creates rhythmic interest of course, but also lends a certain sophistication to the proceedings, and it is worth noting how the brief displacement in bars 31 and 32 (see ex.5), and the manipulation. In bars 61-64, are particularly noticeable for the way they make the time sound as though it was turned around.

keith jarrett sheet music

The rubato aspect (although strictly to do with tempo) needs to be mentioned, as it features throughout, and generally, it tends to heighten the expressive qualities of the introduction by adding brief ebbs or surges to the overall flow. A good example of the amount of variation here can be found in the first melody section, where, after a number of drawn out phrases, the tempo accelerates in bars 1 0-12, slows again at bar 13, and then returns to the faster speed at bar 24.

The overall effect that Jarrett achieves here is one of rhythmic freedom, flexibility, and a certain elasticity, qualities that have always been evident in his work. Describing Jarrett’s playing when he was with Art Blakey, Jack DeJohnette said, “It was totally free of the time … he would play around, outside the pulse … ” 6 Peter Stanley Elsdon in his analysis of Jarrett’s solo ballad style says “This kind of rhythmic flexibility is found fairly rarely in most jazz contexts”.

Harmony

The tonal center is that of the song itself, Bb major, but the chord changes from bars 11 and 12 of the tune (which are essentially in D minor) feature often throughout, and this, combined with the fact that the first two chords of the song are also the II V chords in D minor8, means that
there is a recurring D minor flavour throughout. These changes (from bars 11 and 12) are used in the introductory statement, and of course in both melody sections, but are most prominent in the third development section from bars 59-68 where they are repeated (with slight variations) a number of times (see ex.6.) This reiteration of a harmonic fragment of the tune (or a fragment of some related harmonies) is a device that Jarrett has often employed in introductions of this kind (e.g. I Wish I Knew from 1985, or Days of Wine and Roses from 1994), and it creates the impression that the harmony has paused for a moment. There is one brief modulation to the
relative minor (G) in bars 41-45.

keith jarrett sheet music

As stated earlier, the harmony in general is derived from the song, but apart from the aforementioned D minor section, it draws largely upon the cycle of fifths progression that is found in the last eight bars. The first development section in fact is constructed from two of these, and in each case, the first chord is replaced with a substitute tonic, before the cycle
begins on the second bar.

The second development section utilizes the cycle of fifths, but in a slightly different way. The first five bars contain the previously mentioned modulation to G minor, and mainly use a progression of fifths, however, the dominant chord D7 (bar 45) moves down a semitone to a C# minor chord (a tri-tone substitute for G) at bar 46, rather than resolving to a tonic G minor chord. The C# minor then becomes the first chord in a cycle of fifths progression which concludes at bar 56 when it resolves to the Bb major chord.

The third development section begins with a modulation to D minor, and then moves into the aforementioned repetition of the chord changes from bars 11 and 12 of the song, but like the passage at bars 45 and 46, the dominant chord (at bar 69) moves down a semitone rather than resolving to the tonic, D minor. The Ab chord at bar 70 then becomes the first chord in a descending chromatic progression, which lasts until bar 79 where it shifts to another cycle of fifths pattern, and this, like the others, resolves to Bb major (see ex.7).

It should be obvious that the various similarities that are apparent here contribute to overall cohesion. The coda consists of a 4 bar C pedal section (most of which centers around the tonality of the dominant F (see ex.7]), a deceptive cadence which involves another brief move to a D minor chord (begins at bar 100, and utilizes a fragment of the melody on the dominant chord, and a descending chromatic progression to the secondary dominant. The phrase at bars 103 and 104 which leads to the melody, functions as a dominant statement, but of course moves to the first harmony of the song, E minor 7 b 5 (see exs.7) and 8).

There are a few remaining points of interest, and the first of these is the use of a number of fairly dissonant chords which add a contemporary flavour. They can be found at bars 30-32 (note how a D major triad is utilized here (see ex.9]), 49 and 50, 77, and 79. The second is the recurring use of a suspended Bb note above a number of 07 sus. chords (or minor 7 b 5, or minor 9), this creating a certain ambiguity until it resolves either up or down. These chords are found at bars 36, 76, and 101(see ex.S). The last is the very first chord of the introduction which though labeled Ab major, but could easily be interpreted as Bb7sus.or F minor 7.

keith jarrett sheet music
keith jarrett sheet music

Opening melody section

The song is played as a medium swing, with Jarrett establishing this by playing a simple right hand line at the conclusion of the introduction, and once the first two notes of the melody have been stated, the band immediately joins in playing a two feel. The melody at first is played much as written, though of course with the expected syncopations, and there is a
playful quality to the musical dialogue between the instruments. The highly syncopated piano left hand and the bass’ roaming, melodic approach contribute in particular to this, and one is very much reminded of the classic Bill Evans trio with Scott La Faro. (e.g. tracks like Witchcraft 11 or Sweet and Lovely 12 )

At bars 13-15, Jarrett pulls around the rhythm of the melody in what could be called his typical style, 13 and once he reaches bar 19, the original melody is pretty much discarded in favour of an improvised version. Bars 25-28 feature more of the aforementioned pulling around, and this, combined with the syncopations in both the piano left hand and the bass figures, as well as the conversational style of the drums, creates much rhythmic colour, a characteristic trait of this trio. From bar 29 onwards, the rhythmic tension is essentially released as the players come together iQ anticipation of the improvisation section.

The usual harmonic changes tend to be used throughout (see the chord chart which accompanies the transcriptions), except at bars 13 and 14 the progression is changed from F major, E minor 7b 5, A7 to A7, D minor, G minor, C7. The bridge section (bars 17-24), and the last eight bars (25-32) feature a few common variations- a G pedal for bars 17-20, a C
dim.add 9 chord substituting for the first C minor at bar 19, an Eb min.maj. 7, Ab7 sus. progression at bars 21-22 ratherthan just Ab 7#11, and a Gb aug. chord in place of C minor 7 b 5 at bar 29. These changes (from the bridge onwards) tend to create harmonic tension,
particularly the C dim.add 9, Eb min.maj. 7, and Gb aug. chords, all of which have a dark quality.

3.3 Piano solo

General description

It is five choruses in length (160 bars), and runs for approximately four and a half minutes. The overall shape is probably best described this way :-
First chorus- two feel, melody notes occasionally referred to, mainly quaver based; Second chorus- four feel (continues for the rest of the solo), no obvious reference to melody, intensifies and becomes busier (many semi quavers) then becomes less busy near the end; Third chorus – less busy but intensity maintained, then quickly becomes busy again and
builds toward more intensity around the middle which is maintained until the end; Fourth chorus – less busy, but intensity maintained, further intensifies briefly before leveling out in the middle then re-intensifies, becomes busier and builds towards the final chorus; Fifth chorus – starts busily with a climax of intensity and maintains it, then starts to wind down
approaching the last eight bars before winding right down and referring to the melody in the last eight.

It is worth noting the use of many quaver triplets throughout.

Form

Form is achieved mainly by the combination of broad shapes that have been described above. (Note that at the beginning of the climax [bars 128 and 129] the very high register is used.) There is not any sustained use of a particular theme or motif, rather a sense of the solo being through composed. There are, however, many thematic episodes throughout, and in general, they contribute to the development of the solo. The longest of these also tend to assist in the aforementioned changes in intensity. The most substantial of these is probably the one that starts at the end of bar 83, and runs until the end of 90 (see ex.10).

The theme here is obviously the quaver triplets, which for the most part follow a descending pattern that also incorporates ascending figures. There are two other relatively long thematic passages that are worth noting, and the first of these can be seen at bars 104-113. Here, a B flat blues figure is utilized from bars 104-108, and is then followed by a phrase which develops from it. The second is similar, and can be found at the very end of bar 114, and runs until the beginning of This passage uses one theme (bars 115-119) which at bar 120 develops into another (bars 120-125). Another long episode can be found at bars 134-140, and some briefer
examples can be seen at bars 38-40, 43-45, bars 50-54 etc.

keith jarrett sheet music

Rhythm

The overall rhythmic character is a swinging one (the aforementioned quaver triplets contribute to this), but with a certain sense of freeness and (again) flexibility. This flexibility, apart from providing much variety in general, often manifests itself in the utilization of various approaches which create tension by playing around with the beat. Ian Carr whilst describing an early solo of Jarrett’s says this about his rhythmic approach. “His sense of time is so finely poised that he can play within the pulse, enhancing the rhythmic drive, or in some other time he himself chooses… The alternation of these two approaches is one vital way of creating and releasing tension.

Probably the most prevalent of these approaches is Jarrett’s aforementioned playing behind the beat, and it is perhaps most obvious in quaver passages such as the ones found at bars 46-49,65-68, (and particularly) 108-113 etc. (see ex.11). The same approach to semi quaver
passages can be seen in bars 7-8, 71-72, 131-132 etc., and a couple of examples of pushing ahead of the beat can be found in bars 21 and 106 (see ex.12).

keith jarrett sheet music

The other approaches in evidence are the use of :
Displaced figures, the first being in the opening phrase at bars 1-2 (the motif on beat 3 of bar 1 [which happens to be the opening theme of the song) is played on beat 2 of bar 2, [both Jarrett and Peacock also happen to play the Emin.7 b5 chord on beat 2] see ex.13), the other being in the passage at bars 120-125 (here, the motif on beat 2 of 120 is played on beat
1 of 122, and beat 3 of 124); Irregular groupings of notes, as in bars 56, 70, 75, 77 etc.( see ex.14); Crotchet triplets, as in bars 27, 64,114 etc.(see ex.15); A highly syncopated phrase at bar 25 (see ex.16).

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The most important aspects of the general variety mentioned above are:- the number of different rhythms present and the way they are combined; the length of the phrases; where the phrases begin and end in relation to the bar lines; aspects of the phrases’ relationship to the beat which have not already been discussed.

A good example of the variety of rhythms and their combinations can be seen in the first eight bars, these alone containing a minim, dotted crotchets, crotchets, quavers, quaver triplets, and semi quavers (see ex.17). Other examples can be found at bars 21-30, 40-45, 55-57, 62- 68 etc. The phrases vary in length from half a bar (bars 12, 18, 39 etc.) to seven bars (bars 84-90), but in general tend to be one or two bars long. Where they begin and end in relation to the bar lines further demonstrates Jarrett’s flexibility, and his awareness of this is reflected in the following statement – “As a pianist, you really have to phrase impossibly. I think I do that … ” 15 An examination of the first seventeen bars will illustrate this aspect (also see ex.17).

First phrase:- starts on 4+, ends on 2+; Second phrase:- starts on 4, ends on 2; Third phrase:starts on 3, ends on 3; Fourth phrase:- starts on 2, ends on 4; Fifth phrase:- starts on 1, ends on 1; Sixth phrase:- starts on 2, ends on 16., note after 4; Seventh phrase:- starts on 4+, ends on 1; Eighth phrase:- starts on 2, ends on 3+; Ninth phrase:- starts on 1+, ends on 1+.

The above example also shows partially, of course, one of the main aspects of the phrases’ relationship to the beat, and that is their level of syncopation. As can be seen, numerous of them begin and end on the beat, and though there are a number of syncopations within those same phrases (bars 4,9,10 [beat 4],11,12,16 [2+,4+]) there is _still an “on the beat” quality here (see ex.17). This is offset to a degree, by the placement of the left-hand chords (which are almost all off the beat [see ex.18]), but is best seen as an example of Jarrett’s directness, and his comfort with playing simply when he wants to. Talking about the trio, Jarrett once remarked, “All three of us love melody and don’t like playing clever.”

This aspect becomes less noticeable as the solo moves into the second chorus (where the band plays a four feel and Jarrett’s left-hand chords are minimal), and it tends to become more regularly syncopated from the third chorus onwards. However, although the use of the aforementioned approaches which play around with the beat make things less regular, the
accents in the lines often favor the main beats (see ex.19). The resulting approach is therefore one which combines sophistication with directness.

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Harmony

The chord changes in the piano solo are essentially the same as those used in the melody section, but as you would expect, there are a few variations. The role of the bass, is of course important here, and in general it combines functional root note playing with more melodically based lines.

Often these lines utilize the thirds or fifths of the chords (along with scalar melodies), and as a result, create a certain amount of harmonic tension, but they always resolve to a root note after a bar or two.

Occasionally, Peacock also plays his own brief substitutions (e.g. at bar 44he plays Eb, B, Bb, B, rather than Bb, Eb, (see ex.20) and at bars 119 and 120 he plays a line over a Bb tonality which is F, B, A, G IF, A, Bb, F.

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Jarrett, as is often the case with this song, favors the use of the natural ninth (F#) on the Emin7 b5 chord (the sound of this chord is of course is one of the defining characteristics of the piece), and tends to exploit it’s interchangeability with a tonic Bbmaj. 7 # 5 chord (bars 56 and 65, 89 and 95 etc.[see ex.21]), although he also often uses a flattened third (C#) in Bb
lines (bars 31, 55, 87 etc.[see ex.22]). (Note the substitution of an E min. 11th with a natural fifth for the E min. 7 b 5 in bars 25 and 89. This creates a brighter sound.) The most noteworthy variations are probably those found in the two bar section at bars 13 and 14, 45 and 46, 77 and 78 etc. As can be seen from the earlier reference to \lle chord changes here
(see Opening melody section), this is a Ill, VI, II, V progression in F major, and in general Peacock outlines those changes.

Jarrett, however, treats them more freely and observes them some of the time (bars 13 and 14, 109 and 110 [see ex.23- note how the melody in 110 utilizes an Abdim. chord in place of C 7), replaces them with allusions to D minor at other times (bars 45 and 46 [see ex.24 – note the faint A 7 chord in 46, and bars 77 and 78 [the chords here seem to be F maj./ E 7 b 9, A 7 I D min.) or elaborates on them (bars 141 and 142 [see ex.25 -the pattern here is based on a descending chromatic idea, and is probably
best interpreted as Ab dim., G min., D I F#, F dim., C I E). These variations, and slight discrepancies between the bass and piano, tend to add both harmonic color, and a certain ambiguity.

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Other variations worth noting are the use of :

Harmonic suspension (at bar 92 the chords are D 7, D min., G 7, rather than just G 7 (see ex.26]; at bar 103 the Bb 7 alt. chord is held over for two beats.); Harmonic anticipation (on beat 4 of bar 89 the A 7 chord of the next bar is outlined; on beat 4 of bar 143 the D 7 chord of the next bar is outlined [see ex.27].); Changes of chord quality within the bar (at bar 59 the chords are D min., 07 rather than just D min 7 b 5 [see ex.28]; at bar 75 aD 7 b 9 chord is played on beat one rather than D min.);

The superimposition of different chords over one harmony (at bar 144 beat 2 an Eb maj. 7 chord is played over a D 7 harmony [see ex.27]; at bar 131 Eb, Bb, and F triads are played over a C minor hanmony; at bar 134 [beat 2] a D triad is played over a Bb 7 hanmony. ).

These variations obviously contribute to general harmonic variety and tension, and combined with the ones above, create an overall impression of harmonic freedom.

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Melody

Jarrett’s lyrical, flowing, melodic style is very much in evidence here, and as you would expect, there is much variety. The lyrical aspect is particularly noticeable in passages like the ones at bars 13-16 (see ex.29), 19 and 20, 65-68, and this is enhanced by his characteristic use of melodic embellishments and grace notes (bars 81 [beat 3], 100, 101 etc. [see ex.30]).

On an organizational level, the overall approach is based on a combination of scalar shapes and arpeggiated figures, with extensive use of chromaticism. As stated earlier, there are occasional references to the original melody notes in the first chorus, and these can be found in bars 1, 2, (see ex.31) and 13. The general diatonic shapes range from scale passages (bars 13,and 14 [see ex.32], and 147), to scalar-type figures (bars 6 [see ex.33], 52, 83, 84), to more purely melodic shapes (20, 27, 33 [see ex.34], 45, 47 etc.), to melodic shapes which feature large intervals (bar 94 [beat 4], bar 95 [beat 1- see ex.35], bar 128 [beat 4] etc.).

There are many kinds of arpeggiated figures, and these range from triadic formations (bars 41 [see ex.36], 46, 57 etc.), to seventh chord outlines (bars 11 [see ex.37], 56, 64 etc.), to superimposed triads or sevenths (bar 19 [see ex.38], bar 80 [beat 4- Bb I D 7 = D 7 alt.], bar 92 [beat 3- F I A 7 = A 7 alt.]), to broken or composite formations (bars 7, 53 and 54 [see
ex.39], 75 [beats 2 and 3] etc.).

The variety found here is a good example of Jarrett’s melodic depth, and this has been described by Laurence Hobgood in the following terms – “Combining an uncanny sense of simplicity and lyricism with a seemingly boundless instinct for connecting, extending and overlapping densely figured phrases, Jarrett embodies the current extent of supreme melodic
thinking.”

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The use of chromaticism falls into a number of categories, and they are probably best described this way:
The use of chromatic notes as,

1) Components of a chromatic scale passage (bar 31[see Ex.40]).
2) Passing tones between scale or chord tones (bars 5 [see
ex.41], 21, 35, 36, 55 [second semi quaver] etc.).
3) “Approach” tones- i.e. tones which lead to a chord tone, and
that do not fall on the main beats of the bar ([in semi quaver
passages of the quaver subdivisions will also be considered the
main beats] bars 14 [see ex.42], 35 [last semi quaver], 109
[2nd, 4th, and 6th quavers] etc.).
4) Dissonant tones which fall on the main beats and then
resolve ([these are similar to an appoggiatura] bars 14 and
15 [see ex.42], 23 [beat 1], 73 [beat 4], 76 [beat 2, 3rd semi
quaver], 138 [beat 3] etc.).
5) Upper and or lower “neighbour” tones – i.e. tones that
embellish a chord tone from above and or below, and maybe
on or off the main beats (bars 18, 48 [beat 3, 2nd quaver], 50
[see ex.43], 55 [beat 4] etc.).
6) Components of what could be called “general” or “universal”
melodic shapes – i.e. melodic shapes which feature some
chromatic movement, and that can be utilized in many
different harmonic situations. (What will hereafter be called
“1” – bars 59 [there are 2 uses here, one on beat 3 and
another on beat 4], 74 [beat1], 130 [beat 3]; “1a”- bar 92;
“2” – bar 60; “3” – bars 77, 145 [beat 3]; “3a” – bar 92; “4”bars 129, 130 [beat 1 – slightly modified]. – For examples of these see ex.44 ).

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Apart from adding interest to the melodic lines, Jarrett’s use of chromaticism here functions in a number of ways. It either serves or embellishes the basic harmony, (as in 2, 3, 5), or briefly obscures it, ( 4) or does both ( 1, 6). (This essentially holds true for the remaining pieces.)
The passage at bar 87, which contains many chromatic notes, is probably best seen as a utilization of the blues scale.

The role of the left hand

In this case, large sections of the solo contain no left hand at all. The only real sustained use is found in the first chorus, an eight bar passage towards the end of the fourth chorus, and the wind down section at the end of the solo which is approximately twelve bars long. This, of course is not unusual, and is a reflection of a common desire amongst jazz pianists to create unencumbered, horn like melodic lines.

The first chorus, in general features short, stabbing chords that are almost all off the beat (this has been touched on in the Rhythm analysis), and which contribute to the playful two feel.

The last chord (bars 30-32) is a long one, and serves to delineate the first chorus from the second (see ex.45) which of course, changes to a four feel. From tben on, it either fills or punctuates (bars 37-40 [see ex.46]), again delineates (bars 64-68,148, 149), or supports changes in intensity (83-90 [see ex.47], 116-118, 150-160).

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Closing melody section

This section emerges from the brief one chorus bass solo which becomes more of an ensemble statement as it progresses, and thus provides a smooth transition between the two.

The fact that (like the opening melody section) it is played with a two feel, much interaction between the instruments, a similar approach to the melody, and essentially the same harmonic changes, means that a certain thematic continuity is present. However, the different rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic colours that the players use, give it a different character, and
make it apparent that a musical journey has occurred. This, of course, contributes to a sense of development. From the beginning of the C section, things become more spacious, and there is a gradual winding down in anticipation of Jarrett’s cadenza, which begins at the resolution point (bar 31 ).

The cadenza

It contains 18 bars, runs for approximately 45 seconds, and is made up of three main sections which are grouped as follows :
1st section: 4 bars;
2nd section: 6 bars;
3rd section: 8 bars;
It’s overall approach is similar to the introduction, as it is played rubato, uses rhythmic motifs, utilizes varied time signatures, and incorporates similar harmonies. The structure will be described as follows:
1st section: (see ex.48)
Bars 1-3 :- Bypasses tonic chord (it would normally occur on bar 31) and begins a cycle of fifths progression that is based on the last eight bars and utilizes motif “A” (see ex.48). After “A” is stated (bar 1 [includes quaver pick up from previous bar]), it is repeated (bar 2), then repeated in slightly altered form (bar 3).
Bar 4 :- Pauses on an Eb chord.
2nd section: (see ex.48)
Bars 5-10 :- Modulates briefly to A minor, becomes faster and changes from 4/4 to 3/4 (bars 5,6), then returns to tonic key area and 4/4 (bar 7) and begins another cycle of fifths progression (uses some of the dissonant chords noted in Harmony in the analysis of the introduction), then moves to a sequence of open fifths and pauses on a Db chord (bar 10).
This all utilizes motif “B” (see ex.49). After it is stated (bars 5,6), it is repeated twice but permutated through the change to 4/4, and slightly lengthened at bar 9.
3rd section: (see ex.48)
Bars 11-15 :- Starts on an Eb/Bb chord and then mainly uses the aforementioned dissonant chords as well as incorporating varied time signatures within 4/4 (bars 13, 15). This all utilizes motif “C” (see ex.49 [note that it is similar to the “B” motif in the introduction]). After it is first
stated (bars 11,12), it is repeated twice but permutated through the changed meters and shortened at bar 15.
Bars 16-18 :- Cadential phrase which uses an ascending chromatic progression. Pauses on an Ab diminished chord, resolves to tonic.

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It is worth noting that even though there are many foreign hanmonies here, the tonal center of Bb major is preserved by the use of the subdominant chord (Eb) at crucial points in the structure. Again, it should be obvious that the similarities between the cadenza and the introduction contribute to thematic unity.

Overview and Summary

The overall shape of this performance is, of course, governed in broad terms by the structure that is particular to this approach, so it is the actual components within each section that contribute to the specific shape which is found here. The introduction functions as a prelude, which apart from presenting the melody has its own definite profile, this being most apparent when it moves from the melody statement into the development sections, and then back again.

The opening melody section not only serves to amplify the melody and develop it (through ensemble interaction and Jarrett’s melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic variations), but also has its own identity and functions as the introductory part of the ensemble section in the musical discourse.

The piano solo functions as a development section, building on what has preceded it, and part of this is a definite change of character between the first chorus (which maintains the playful two feel from the melody section) and the second (which moves into “four”). The second and remaining choruses continue the development, and are responsible for the gradual rise in intensity and eventual climax, which is achieved by building intensity in stages with plateaus in between.

The final part of the solo involves another change in mood when, at the end of the bridge in the last chorus, it begins to wind down. The closing melody section functions as the last part of the development by the ensemble, and (as mentioned earlier) makes it obvious through another
change of character that a musical journey has taken place. The mood then changes once more as the band winds down before the cadenza, which subsequently acts as a final statement that not only has structural connections with the introduction, but of course is once again solo piano.
The general impression that comes across in this performance is one of a very passionate, spontaneous and flowing musical journey. This is made up of many definite musical episodes which are brought together by a strong underlying sense of form and structure. Jarrett’s awareness of this aspect is confirmed in a statement that he made in 2001. “I have instincts about form over long periods of time.”

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Bach meets The Beatles – “Golden Slumbers – You Never Give Me Your Money”

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Bach meets The Beatles – “Golden Slumbers – You Never Give Me Your Money” – Improvised by John Bayless, piano.

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John Bayless is one of the top classical cross-over recording and concert performing artists, best known for his top-selling albums, “Bach Meets the Beatles,” “The Puccini Album” and “Circle of Life: Songs by Elton John in the Style of Bach.”  He has appeared at Carnegie Hall in a performance of his own West Side Story Concert Variations for solo piano and orchestra, made his Tanglewood debut playing Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue with the Boston Pops, opened the San Francisco Summer Pops season with the same work and appeared in three sold-out concerts at the Hollywood Bowl with John Mauceri and the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra.

He performed his West Side Story Concert Variations and his Bach Meets the Beatles repertoire with the Philadelphia Orchestra.  Bayless is Artistic Director for the Waring International Piano Competition. For more information, visit .

Show was directed by Stewart Schulman.  Singer actress Jean Kauffman has a cameo. Bayless had a stroke in 2008 which left him paralyzed on his right side. Bayless shares his road to recovery, and his return to composing and performing with one hand. This story of resiliency and hope has something for everyone.

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The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

Woody Guthrie: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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Woody Guthrie: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

The songs of prolific American folksinger and songwriter Woodrow (“Woody”) Wilson Guthrie (b. July 14, 1912, Okemah, Okla., U.S.—d. Oct. 3, 1967, New York, N.Y.) chronicled the plight of common people, especially during the Great Depression.

Woody Guthrie, the third of five children, was the son of a onetime cowboy, land speculator, and local Democratic politician who named him after Pres. Woodrow Wilson. His mother, who introduced her children to a wide variety of music, was thought to be mentally ill and was institutionalized when Guthrie was a teenager. Her erratic behavior
was actually caused by Huntington’s disease, a hereditary neurological disorder about which little was known at the time and which would later afflict Guthrie too. The family lived near the relocated Creek nation in Okemah, Okla., a small agricultural and railroad town that boomed in the
1920s when oil was discovered in the area. The effect on the town and its people of the decline that followed the boom sensitized the young Guthrie to others’ suffering, which he had also experienced firsthand through the
calamities that befell his splintering family. (Guthrie paid particular attention to this period of his life in his autobiographical novel Bound for Glory [1943].)

Soon after his mother’s institutionalization, Guthrie began “rambling” for the first time, coming to love life on the road. Though he often left Okemah to travel during his teens, he always returned to continue his high school education. At age 19 he relocated to Pampa, Texas, where he married Mary Jennings, with whom he had three children. When the Great Depression deepened and drought turned a large section of the Great Plains into the Dust Bowl, making it impossible for Guthrie to support his
family, he again took to the road. Like so many other displaced people from the region (collectively called “Okies” regardless of whether they were Oklahomans), he headed for California, playing his guitar and harmonica and singing in taverns, taking odd jobs, and visiting hobo camps as he traveled by freight train, hitchhiked, or simply walked
westward.

In Los Angeles in 1937, he landed a spot performing on the radio, first with his cousin, Jack Guthrie, then with Maxine Crissman, who called herself Lefty Lou. At that time Guthrie began songwriting in earnest, giving voice to the struggles of the dispossessed and downtrodden while celebrating their indomitable spirit in songs such as “Do Re Mi,” “Pretty Boy Floyd,” and “Dust Bowl Refugee.”

Guthrie’s politics became increasingly leftist, and by the time he moved to New York City in 1940 he had become an important musical spokesman for labor and populist sentiments, embraced by left-leaning intellectuals
and courted by communists. In New York, to which he had brought his family, Guthrie became one of the principal songwriters for the Almanac Singers, a group of activist performers—including Leadbelly, Pete Seeger, Sonny Terry, Brownie McGhee, and Cisco Houston—who used their
music to attack fascism and support humanitarian and leftist causes.

In 1941 Guthrie made his first recordings, with folklorist Alan Lomax, and traveled to the Pacific Northwest, where a commission to write songs in support of federal dam building and electrification projects produced such
well-known compositions as “Grand Coulee Dam” and “Roll On Columbia.” Back in New York after serving as a merchant marine during World War II, his first marriage having ended in divorce, Guthrie married Marjorie (Greenblatt) Mazia, a Martha Graham Dance Company dancer with whom he would have four children (including son Arlo, who would become an important singer-songwriter in his own right in the 1960s).

As the political tide in the United States turned conservative and then reactionary during the 1950s, Guthrie and his folksinger friends in New York kept alive the flame of activist music making. He continued writing and performing politically charged songs that inspired the American
folk revival of the 1960s, at the head of which were performers such as Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, and Phil Ochs, who came to pay homage to Guthrie in his hospital room in New Jersey, to which he was confined beginning in 1954, after his increasingly erratic actions were finally and correctly diagnosed as the result of Huntington’s disease.

Among the more than 1,000 songs that Guthrie wrote were a number of remarkable children’s songs written in the language and from the perspective of childhood, as well as some of the most lasting and influential songs in the canon of American music, not least “So Long (It’s Been Good to Know Yuh)”, “Hard Traveling,” “Blowing Down This Old Dusty Road, ” “Union Maid,” and (inspired by John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath) “Tom Joad .” Probably the most famous of his works is “This Land Is Your Land, ” which became a pillar of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s.

At the time of his death in 1967, Guthrie had already begun to assume legendary stature as a folk figure, and his influence on such pivotal singer-songwriters as Bob Dylan and Bruce Springsteen was immense. A film version of his book Bound for Glory appeared in 1976, and in 1998 Billy
Bragg and alternative rockers Wilco released the critically acclaimed Mermaid Avenue , a collection of previously unrecorded lyrics by Guthrie that they had set to music; Mermaid Avenue Vol. II followed in 2000.

Woody Guthrie // Woodys Greatest Hits: My Dusty Road LP (FULL ALBUM)

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Tracklist

A1This Land Is Your Land2:44
A2Going Down The Road (I Ain’t Gonna Be Treated This Way)2:56
A3Talking Sailor3:06
A4Philadelphia Lawyer2:32
A5Hard Travellin’2:38
A6Jesus Christ2:41
A7The Sinking Of The Reuben JamesWritten-By – Pete Seeger, Almahttps://sheetmusiclibrary.website/2021/07/30/woody-guthrie-sheet-music/nac Singers*, Woody Guthrie
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B1Pretty Boy Floyd3:06
B2Grand Coulee Dam2:09
B3Nine Hundred Miles2:51
B4Going Down The Road (I Ain’t Gonna Be Treated This Way)2:57
B5My Daddy (Flies A Ship In The Sky)2:33
B6Bad Repetation2:50
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The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

Robert Johnson: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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    Robert Johnson: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

    Robert Johnson (b. c. 1911, Hazlehurst, Miss., U.S.—d. Aug. 16, 1938, near Greenwood, Miss.) was an American blues composer, guitarist, and singer whose eerie falsetto singing voice and masterful, rhythmic slide guitar influenced both his contemporaries and many later blues and rock musicians.

    Robert Johnson was the product of a confusing childhood, with three men serving as his father before he reached age seven. Little is known about his biological father (Noah Johnson, whom his mother never married), and the boy and his mother lived on various plantations in the Mississippi Delta region before settling briefly in Memphis, Tenn., with her first husband (Robert Dodds, who had changed his surname to Spencer).

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    The bulk of Johnson’s youth, however, was spent in Robinsonville, Miss., with his mother and her second husband (Dusty Willis). There, Johnson learned to play the Jew’s harp and harmonica before taking up the guitar. In 1929, he married 16-year-old Virginia Travis, whose death in childbirth (along with that of their baby) in April 1930 devastated Johnson.

    In Robinsonville he came in contact with well-known Mississippi Delta bluesmen Willie Brown, Charley Patton, and Son House—all of whom influenced his playing and none of whom was particularly impressed by his talent. They were dazzled by his musical ability, however, when he returned to town after spending as much as a year away. That time away is central to Johnson’s mythic status.

    According to legend, during that period Johnson made a deal with Satan at a crossroads, acquiring his prodigious talent as a guitarist, singer, and songwriter in exchange for the stipulation that he would have only eight more years to live. (A similar story circulated in regard to another Mississippi bluesman, Tommy Johnson.)

    Music historian Robert Palmer, in is highly regarded book Deep Blues (1981), instead ascribes Robert Johnson’s remarkable musical attainments to the time he had to hone his skills as a guitarist under the instruction of Ike Zinneman as a result of the financial support he received from the older woman he married near Hazlehurst, Miss. (Johnson’s birthplace), and to the wide variety of music to which he was exposed during his hiatus from Robinsonville, including the singlestring picking styles of Lonnie Johnson and Scrapper Blackwell.

    After returning briefly to Robinsonville, Johnson settled in Helena, Ark., where he played with Elmore James, Robert Nighthawk, and Howlin’ Wolf, among others. He also became involved with Estella Coleman and informally adopted her son, Robert Lockwood, Jr., who later became a notable blues musician under the name Robert Jr. Lockwood. Johnson traveled widely throughout Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas, and Tennessee and as far north as Chicago and New York, playing at house parties, juke joints, and lumber camps and on the street.

    In 1936–37 he made a series of recordings in a hotel room in San Antonio, Texas, and a warehouse in Dallas. His repertoire included several blues songs by House and others, but Johnson’s original numbers, such as “Me and the Devil Blues,” “Hellhound on My Trail,” “Sweet Home Chicago,” “I Believe I’ll Dust My Broom,” “Ramblin’ on My Mind,” and “Love in Vain” are his most compelling pieces. Unlike the songs of many of his contemporaries—which tended to unspool loosely, employing combinations of traditional and improvised lyrics—Johnson’s songs were tightly composed, and his song structure and lyrics were praised by Bob Dylan.

    Despite the limited number of his recordings, Johnson had a major impact on other musicians, including Muddy Waters, Elmore James, Eric Clapton, and the Rolling Stones. Johnson died of poisoning after drinking strychnine-laced whiskey in a juke joint.

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    00:00 “I Believe I’ll Dust My Broom” Robert Johnson 02:58 “Phonograph Blues” Robert Johnson 05:33 “Phonograph Blues (Alt. Version – Take 2)” Robert Johnson 08:08 “Ramblin’ On My Mind” Robert Johnson 11:01 “Ramblin’ On My Mind (Alt. Version – Take 2)” Robert Johnson 13:23 “Kindhearted Woman Blues” Robert Johnson 16:14 “Kindhearted Woman Blues (Alt. Version Take 2)” Robert Johnson 18:46 “Terraplane Blues” Robert Johnson

    21:46 “I’m A Steady Rollin’ Man” Robert Johnson 24:24 “Walking Blues” Robert Johnson 26:53 “Last Fair Deal Gone Down” Robert Johnson 29:32 “Dead Shrimp Blues” Robert Johnson 32:09 “Sweet Home Chicago” Robert Johnson 35:11 “32-20 Blues” Robert Johnson 38:02 “Come On In My Kitchen” Robert Johnson 40:52 “Come On In My Kitchen (Alt. Version – Take 2)” Robert Johnson

    43:30 “If I Had Possession Over Judgement Day” Robert Johnson 46:04 “Me And The Devil Blues” Robert Johnson 48:36 “Me And The Devil Blues (Alt. Version – Take 1)” Robert Johnson 51:12 “Preaching Blues (Up Jumped The Devil)” Robert Johnson 54:05 “Stones In My Passway” Robert Johnson

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